27. NAME DERIVATIONS


ALGIE
  This surname is regarded as Scottish having been resident in the Inchinnan (Renfrew) area since the early 16th Century. The name derives from an Italian immigrant, one Peter Algoe, and he built up substantial estates in Renfrewshire. Peter Algeo was originally in the employment of the Abbot of Paisley, and this employment no doubt assisted his acceptance into society.

In 1550, he was elected a burgess of Paisley, and his son Robert is recorded in the Tax List for 1585. The first variant spelling was in 1630 (John Algo), whilst James Aljo was recorded in 1684.

The spelling seems to have remained as predominantly Algeo until the 18th Century, but after William Algie, a witness at Cathcart, Renfrew in 1739, the recordings are almost all in the modern spelling.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Peter Algeo in 1547 when he married Marion Morton, heiress of Easter Walkinshaw, during the reign of Mary, "Queen of Scots", 1542 - 1567.


ALLEN
  This surname is widespread throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland. It derives from the Gaelic and Breton personal name of the pre-Christian era "Ailin" which loosely translates as "little rock" or "headstone", although it may also mean "harmony". The first recorded name bearer was "Alawn", a legendary poet of the fifth century AD, reputed to be one of the three foremost musicians of the period.

The Bretons, who were originally British settlers in France, returned as invaders with William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, and in so doing re-introduced the name into England. Certainly "Alanus" without a surname, is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book for the county of Suffolk. The name was popular among Bretons due to St Alan, a 5th Century bishop from Quimper in Brittany.

From early times the spelling form has varied considerably not least in the Celtic countries where it has ranged from Eilian to Alwyn and Alleyne. Other variations include Allayne, Allain, Allanach, Allanshaw, MacAllen, and many more.

Early surname recordings include those of Roger Alain of Yorkshire in the rolls of the village of Calverly, in 1246, and Richard Aleyns of Staffordshire, in the Assize Court Rolls of 1309. Other examples are John Allen, prebendary of St Pauls Cathedral, London in 1527, whilst in 1638 another John Allen was a puritan divine, and one of the earliest settlers in the New England colonial city of Plymouth, USA.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Geoffrey Alein, which was dated 1234, in the "Feet of Fines" rolls of Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Triumpho morte tain vitû
Motto translated: I triumph equally in death as in life


ANDERSON
  This surname is of English and Scottish origin, and is a patronymic of the surname Andrew. The name is derived from the Greek personal name of "Andreas", a derivative of "andreios", meaning "manly". This was the name of the first of Jesus Christ's disciples, and it is also the name of the patron saint of both Scotland and Russia.

The personal name was first recorded as "Andreas" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and the surname was first recorded in Scotland with one John Andree, who was present at the perambulation of the boundaries of Kyrknes and Louchor in 1395.

The modern surname can be found as Andrew(e)s, Andress, Andriss, Anderson, Enderson, McAndrew and Kendrew.

One William Anderson was an early settler in America, setting sail from London on the "Alexander" bound for the Barbadoes in May 1635. Among the recordings in London is the christening of Neal, son of Erasmus and Mary Anderson, on March 19th 1698, at St. Katherine by the Tower.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rogerus Andreweson, which was dated 1272, in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Also see ANDREWS below.

Motto: Stand sure


ANDREWS
  This surname is a patronymic of the English given name "Andrew", itself coming from the Greek personal name "Andreas" meaning "manly". The first of Jesus Christ's disciples is known by this name. St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, and there is a legend that his relics were brought there in the 4th Century by St. Regulus.

Variations in the spelling of the surname include Andros, Androes, Andrewes, and Androwes. Church Records list the christening of David, son of Edward Andrews, on January 6th 1572, at St. Giles, Cripplegate, and the marriage of James Andrewes to Euphemia Masterton on August 10th 1798, in Edinburgh Parish.

The personal name appears as "Andreas" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and its use as a surname dates back to the late 13th century when it was first recorded as Moricius Andrewys, dated 1275, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Also see ANDERSON above.

Motto: Victrix fortunœ sapientia
Motto translated: Wisdom the conqueror of fortune


BAILEY
  This surname has three distinct origins. Firstly it can be an occupational name for a steward or official from the Old French "baillis" or "bailif", and Middle English "bail(l)", which all derived from the Latin term, "baiulivus". The word survives in Scotland as "bailie", the title of a municipal magistrate, but in England has developed into "bailiff", an officer of the court.

The second source is topographical, denoting one who lived by the outermost wall of a castle or fortified town from the Middle English "bail(l)y" as can be seen in the case of the Old Bailey in London which was part of the early medieval walls.

Thirdly, the surname can be locational, from Bailey in Lancashire, which means "berry wood" or from the Normandy town of Bailleul-en-Vimeu.

One Roger le Baylly appeared in the Suffolk Pipe Rolls in 1230, while the Assize Court Rolls of Lancashire recorded a Ralph de Baylegh in 1246. Walter Bayley (1529-1593) educated at Winchester and fellow of Oxford, was Queen Elizabeth's physician.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger le Baylly, which was dated 1230, in the Suffolk Pipe Rolls, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Also see BAYLISS below.

Motto: Ubi bene ibi patria
Motto translated: One's country is where one is well


BALL
  This surname has a number of possible derivations. Firstly, it may be of early medieval English origin, from a nickname for a short, rounded person, derived from the Middle English "bal(le)", ball, a development of the Olde English pre 7th Century "bealla", and influenced by the Old Norse "bollr".

In some cases the nickname may have referred to a bald man, from the same word used in the sense of a round, hairless patch on the skull; interestingly, the modern English term "bald" derives from a contracted form of the Middle English "ballede", from "bal(le)" with "-ede", that is, "having a balle".

Secondly, the surname Ball may be topographical in origin, from the same term, "bal(le)", used in the sense of denoting someone who lived by a knoll or rounded hill.

Finally, Ball may derive from the Old Norse personal name "Balle", of obscure etymology, but believed to be derived from "bal", meaning torture or pain, or the Old German personal name "Balle", from "bald", or bold.

Other variations of the name Ball include Balle, Balls, Balders and others.

Early recordings of the name from each of these derivations include: Robert le Bal (1296, Sussex); Henry atte Balle (1327), Somerset); and Norman Balle (1183, Northamptonshire). One Robart Ball was a very early emigrant to the American colonies; he is recorded as resident in Virginia in 1624, having arrived in the "London Marchant" in 1619, a year before the arrival of the "Mayflower".

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godwin Balle, which was dated 1137, in the "Early London Personal Names" during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.

Motto: Filcrum dignitotis virus
Motto Translated: Virtue is the support of dignity


BANKS
  This name derives from the Northern Middle English "bank(e)", itself coming from the Old Danish "banke" meaning a ridge or hillside, and was originally given as a topographical name to someone who lived on the slope of a hillside or by a riverbank. The final "s" on the name preserves the Old English genitive ending i.e., "of the bank".

The surname has a number of spellings including Bankes, Banck, Banckes and Banker.

One Matthew Banke appeared in the Subsidy Rolls of Suffolk, dated 1327, and on June 21st 1546, Alse, daughter of John Banks, was christened in St. Antholin's, Budge Row, London. A John Banks of Devon was entered in the Oxford University Register, dated 1597.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter del Banck, which was dated 1297, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Nullius in verba
Motto translated: At the dictation of no man


BARNETT
  Although this famous surname is of early Anglo-Saxon pre 7th Century origins, its longevity in Ireland is such that it may also be regarded as Irish in its own right. The name is either topographical for one who lived on "land cleared by burning" (Baernet) or is a derivative form of the personal name "Bernhard" meaning "brave-bear".

There are numerous spellings of the name, including Barnet, Barnatt, Burnet, and Burnett.

The earliest recordings are those of Brictnod de la Bernet in Sussex, circa 1200, and John Barnet, Bishop of Worcester and Treasurer of All England, who died in 1373. The early recordings in Ireland include Steven Barnatt of Templemore, Derry, christened on May 20th 1660, whilst other recordings include: John Barnett of Macroom, on May 4th 1773; Denis Barnett of Rosscarbery, on November 6th 1864; and Cornelius Barnett, and his wife the former Ellen Hurly, who were witnesses at the christening of their son, John, at Skibbereen, County Cork, on May 2nd 1866.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Jane Barnett, which was dated January 29th 1656 on her marriage to James Davison in County Derry, Ulster, during the period of the Commonwealth, 1649 - 1659.

Motto: Finis coronat opus
Motto translated: The end crowns the work


BARRETT
  This surname was introduced into Ireland by the Anglo-Norman invaders of 1169 and 1170. One branch of the family, initially called Barratt, settled in County Cork and their name was rendered "Baroid" in Irish. This version of the name is regarded as Norman-French, deriving from the old French male given name Baraud, ultimately from the Germanic Ber(n)wald, composed of the elements "ber(n)", bear, plus "wald", rule.

The second branch called Barrett established themselves in the Connacht counties of Mayo and Galway, where the name was Gaelicised as "Bareid". This is Anglo-Saxon having its origins in the old English Beornheard or the old German Bernhard, personal names composed of the elements "ber(n)" meaning bear, plus "hard" meaning brave or strong.

Eventually, the surname was spelt Barrett in both Munster and Connacht and the county Cork family were influential enough to give their name to an extensive territory i.e., Barrett's Country. The North Mayo Barretts were Lords of Tirawley and the chief of this sept (founded on the Irish model) was known as MacWattin.

Consquently a variation on the name includes McWhadden as well as more obvious variations such as Barret, Barett, and Barat.

The names of several of the Mayo Barretts are included in the "Composition Book of Connacht", dated 1585. Richard Barrett, (circa 1740 - 1818), known as "the Poet of Erris" was also a prominent United Irishman.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Baireid, which was dated circa 1350, "The Annals of Connacht", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Semper vigilans
Motto translated: Always vigilant


BARTLETT
  This surname is a double diminutive form of "Bart", or "Bert", a pet form of Bartholomew, plus the diminutive suffixes "-el" and "-ot"; hence, "Bart-, Bert-el-ot". Bartholomew itself originates from a medieval English name which ultimately derives from the Aramaic patronymic "bar-Talmay", son of Talmay, a given name meaning "having many furrows", that is, rich in land. As a given name in Christian Europe, its popularity is due to the apostle St Bartholomew, the patron saint of tanners, vintners and butlers.

Early recordings include: Thomas Bartolot, in the Cambridgeshire Hundred Rolls (1273); Walter Bertelot, in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex (1296); Thomas Bartelot in the Feet of Fines of Cambridgeshire (1294); and Thomas Bartlot, in the Poll Tax Records of Yorkshire (1379). One Robert Bartlett was one of the early settlers in New England in June 1632.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godricus Bertelot, which was dated circa 1157, in "St Benet of Holme, 1020 - 1240", Norfolk, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


BATES
  The Bates surname has three distinct possible origins, the first and most likely source being the medieval male given name "Bate", itself a pet form of "Bartholomew", from the Aramaic patronymic "bar-Talmay" meaning "abounding in furrows" or "rich in lands". One Bate le Tackman was recorded in the 1273 Hundred Rolls of Lincolnshire.

The name may also be occupational for a boatman, deriving from the Old English pre 7th Century "bat" (Northern Middle English "bat"), meaning a boat. A Herbert Bat was noted in the 1182 Pipe Rolls of Shropshire.

Finally, the Old Norse "bati", profit or gain, used in the transferred sense of "lush pasture" may have given rise to the surname. Early examples from this topographical source are Thomas del Bate (Yorkshire, 1297).

Other variations of the name Bates includes Batts, Bats, Bate, Bateson, Baits, Baites, Baytes and many more.

The final "s" in the name indicates the patronymic form, "son of Bate". One Matilda Battes, appears in the 1279 Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire. In April 1635, Clement Bates, a tailor, aged 40 yrs., along with his wife, Ann, his five children James, Clement, Rachell, Joseph and Ben, and his two servants, departed from the port of London bound for New England, aboard the "Elizabeth". These were some of the earliest settlers of the name in the New World.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Bate, which was dated 1275, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Et manu et corde
Motto Translated: Both with hand and heart.


BAYLIS
  This name is of occupational origin for a steward or official. It derives from the Middle English "bail(l)i", a development of the Old French "baillis". In Scotland the word survives as "bailie", the title of a chief magistrate for a part of a county or barony. The word survives in England as "bailiff", an officer who serves writs and summonses for the court, while in Wales it was the name given to an agent of the English lords of the Marches.

The surname has been recorded with variant spellings including Bayliss, Bayless and Bailess, Bayliff, Bayliffe, and others. Also see BAILEY above.

One Samuel Baylles appears in the Register of the Freemen of the City of York (1635). On August 13th 1750, John Bayliss married Sarah Mitchell in St. George's, Mayfair, Westminster, London. One Ann Bayliss was christened on February 5th 1759 in St. Sepulchre, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Baillis, which was dated 1547, in the Register of the Freemen of the City of York, during the reign of Queen Mary I, 1553-1558


BAYNE
  This surname is of Old French and Anglo-Saxon origin, and has three possible sources, each with its own derivation and meaning. Firstly, it may be Norman-French, and derives from a nickname for a "good" person, from the Old French "bon", good, itself from the Latin "bonus". The name was introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, and may have been bestowed in a complimentary or ironic sense on a "good" person.

The second possible source is also from a nickname, which is found recorded mainly in the north of England as "Bain", and was given to an exceptionally tall, lean person. The derivation in this instance is from the Olde English pre 7th Century "ban", or bone; in northern dialects the long "a" was preserved, whereas in the southern dialect it was changed to an "o" sound.

A third source is from Pictish name Beathan, from the Gaelic word "betha", meaning life. Bean was also the name of a saint in the Breviary of Aberdeen.

In the modern idiom the surname from all three sources can be found recorded as Bean, Bone, Baine, Bunn, Bonn, Boon(e), MacBain, MacVain, McBean, McVan and others.

A Roger Bone was recorded in the 1273 Hundred Rolls of Kent. Recordings from London Church Registers include: the christening of John, son of John and Ann Boon, on April 5th 1677, at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, and the marriage of Benjamin Boon and Ann Ball on August 1st 1686, at St. Andrew's, Enfield.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Edward le Bon, which was dated 1204, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Oxfordshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Touch not a catt bot a targe
Motto translated: Touch not the cat without a shield


BENNETT
  This surname derives from the medieval given name "Benedict", from the Latin "Benedictus" meaning blessed. This personal name owed its popularity in the Middle Ages chiefly to St. Benedict (circa 480 - 550 AD), who founded the Benedictine order of monks at Monte Cassino, and wrote a monastic rule that formed a model for all subsequent rules.

There were many versions of the name throughout Europe, and in England in the 12th Century the Latin form of the name can be found alongside versions derived from the Old French forms "Beneit" and "Benoit", which were popular among the Normans. Bennett has also been spelled Benett, Bennet, and Benet.

London Church Records list the christening of Dennys Bennett on June 15th 1567 at St. Mary at Hill, and the christening of Thomas Bennit on December 1st 1583 at St. John's, Hackney. One John Bennett was an early emigrant to the New World; he is recorded as sailing in the "Plaine Joan" from London in May 1635, bound for Virginia.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Benet, which was dated 1208, in the "Charter Rolls of Durham", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Dux vitœ ratio
Motto translated: Reason is the guide of life


BENTON
  This uncommon surname is of Anglo Saxon origin, and is a locational name either from Long Benton or Little Benton in Northumberland, or from the hamlet of Benton, near Bratton Fleming in Devonshire. The Northumberland villages, recorded as "Bentune" circa 1190, and respectively as "Magna Beneton" and "Parva Bentona" in the 1236 and 1256 Feet of Fines for the county, have as their initial element the Old English 7th Century "beonet", meaning bent grass, with "tun", meaning an enclosure or settlement.

Locational surnames, such as this, were originally given to local landowners, especially as a means of identification to those who left their birthplace to settle elsewhere. On April 20th 1549, Rafe Benton and Elyzabeth Buxston were married at Christ Church, Greyfriars Newgate, London, and on July 13th 1581, the marriage of Margaret Benton to Robert Carrocke took place at Hexham, Northumberland.

Other spellings of the name include Bentoun and Bentown.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Willms Benntine, which was dated February 29th 1548, christened at Thwaites, Cumberland, during the reign of King Edward VI, 1547 - 1553.


BETHELL
  This surname is of medieval Welsh origin and comes from the personal name Ithel or Ithael. This is a compound of the elements "ith, udd", lord, and "hael", bountiful. This name was borne by a mid 9th Century King of Gwent, and in the 12th Century, one Ithel ap Cedifor Wyddel was killed in battle.

The surname features the distinctive Welsh patronymic prefix “ab” or “ap”, meaning son of, and was originally spelt ab-Ithell. Over time, the prefixes have been assimilated into the surname and the overall spelling has been altered. Variations include Bethel, Bethell, Bithel, Bythell, and others.

It may also have an early medieval English source from the diminutive of Beth, itself a short form of the female personal name "Elizabeth", from a Hebrew name meaning "God has sworn". Elizabeth, an immensely popular name in Britain and throughout Europe, generated a wide variety of diminutive and pet forms including Bess, Beth, Betta, Libby and Lisbet. One Betha de Bureswelles was recorded in the 1176 Chartulary of St. Mary, Clerkenwell.

Christopher Bethell was bishop of Bangor from 1830 to 1859, and Richard Bethell was created first Baron Westbury in 1861.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Amicia Bethel, which was dated 1279, in the "Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307

Motto: Ap Ithel
Motto translated: Son of Ithel


BETTERIDGE
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and derives from the Old English pre 7th Century male personal name "Beaduric", composed of the elements "beadu", meaning battle, with "ric", meaning power.

The modern surname can be found in seven different forms; Betteridge, Bettridge, Beteriss, Battrick, Batrick, Badrick and Badrock.

The original Old English name is also found in two English placenames, Battersea in London, recorded as "Badoricesheah" in 695 AD, and meaning "Beaduric's Island", and Bethersden in Kent, recorded as "Baedericesdaenne" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and meaning "Beaduric's (swine) pasture".

One Agnes Betteridge was christened at St. Bride's, Fleet Street, London, on February 12th 1600.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Baderich, which was dated 1275, in the "Worcestershire Subsidy Rolls", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Dum spiro spero
Motto translated: While I have breath I hope


BIDMEAD
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a location name from some minor or unrecorded place, perhaps a lost village. There are an estimated seven to ten thousand villages and hamlets that have now disappeared from Britain since the 12th Century; the prime cause of these disappearances was the enforced clearing and dispersal of the former inhabitants to make way for sheep pastures at the height of the wool-trade in the 15th Century. Other natural causes include the Black Death of 1348, in which an eighth of the population perished.

The original place is believed to have been situated in Gloucestershire, because of the large number of early recordings in that region. The component elements of the place name may be the Old English pre 7th Century personal name "Bida" or "Bidda", with "maed", meadow; hence, "Bidda's meadow".

In the modern idiom the surname can be found as Bitmead, Bydmead, Bidmead and Bidmed.

Recordings of the surname from English Church Registers include: the marriage of Joan Bydmead and Thomas Stevens on October 4th 1604, at Elkstone, Gloucestershire; the marriage of Olliffe Bidmead and William Higham on October 10th 1665, at Cirencester, Gloucestershire; and the marriage of Martha Bidmead and Edward Harris at St. James', Duke's Place, London, on July 3rd 1690.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Christopher Bidmead, which was dated January 4th 1578, witness at the christening of his daughter, Jone, at Elkstone, Gloucestershire, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603.


BIGGS
  This name is derived from the Old English word "bigga" which literally means "large". As such is was used both as an original baptismal name and then later it became used as a nickname, often for someone who was actually quite small.

The name has been recorded over the years as Bigg, Bigge, Biggs, and Bigges and the addition of the "S" usually implies that it was a patronymic name meaning "son of Bigg".

The name is well recorded in several different parts of England such as Henry de Bigges of Cambridgeshire, in the year 1327; Walter Bigg, in the 1177 Pipe Rolls of the county of Suffolk; and Henry Bigge in the 1195 Pipe rolls of Gloucestershire.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Aelric Bigga, in the charters known as the Old Bynames register, and dated 1036 AD when the king on the throne of England at the time was Harold I, 1035 - 1040.

Motto: Christus Mihi Vita
Motto translated: Christ my life


BISSELL
  This name has three possible origins, the first of which is locational from the place called "Bossall" in North Yorkshire. It is first recorded as "Boscele" and "Bosciale" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and means "Botsige's haugh", from the old English pre 7th Century personal name "Botsige", and "halh" meaning a piece of flat alluvial land by the side of a river.

The second possible origin is from an occupational name for a corn merchant. The derivation is from the Middle English "busshell", meaning a measure of corn. The third possibility is that it is derived from the Norman French word "bichelle", meaning a hind or deer.

There are a number of variants of the name, including Busswell, Bissell, Biswell, Bishell, Boshell and Bushill.

Early recordings include Alan Buseel of Yorkshire in 1140, and Richard Bussell of Bedford in the year 1200. Church recordings include Thomas Bushell of London on July 3rd 1586, and Major George Bushell of Barbados on January 9th 1685.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rodger Buissel, which was dated 1086 in the Domesday Book of Somerset during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: In recto decus
Motto translated: Honour in acting right


BLACKHAM
  This name is of English locational origin from a place in Suffolk called Blakenham. Recorded as Blackam in the Domesday Book of 1086 and as Blakeham in the 1190 Fine Court Rolls of the county, the first element is the Old English pre 7th Century personal byname "Blaca", from "blaec" meaning black or dark. The second element is from the Old English "ham", meaning a manor, estate, or homestead.

Variations on the name include Blackhall, Blackall, Blakhall and Blaikhall.

One Richard de Blakeham appears in the 1273 "Hundred Rolls of Suffolk", and on November 19th 1577 Willyam Blakeham and Margaret Harper were married in Westminster, London. On January 15th 1625 the marriage of Samuel Blackham and Jane Garrett was recorded in the church register of Uxbridge, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Benedictus de (of) Blakeham, which was dated circa 1135 in the "Documents of Bury St. Edmunds", Suffolk, during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: A Deo honor et fortuna
Motto translated: From God, honour and valour


BRADLEY
  This is an early medieval Anglo-Scottish surname. Recorded in a surprising number of spellings including Bradly, Bradley, Braudly, Broadley, Bruidley, Braidley, Breadley, Bradlie, Bradeley, Pradley, and Radley, it is residential and originates either from the varied villages called Bradley, or from now lost places, which had the meaning of a "broad clearing suitable for agriculture". The location name of Bradley was in turn derived from the pre 7th century English word "brad-leah", which means a broad meadow.

Early interesting examples of the surname recording include John de Bradely of Berwick, who rendered homage to the republican government of Scotland in 1296.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William de Bradelai. This was dated 1170, in the Pipe Rolls of Lincolnshire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Vigilance et audax
Motto translated: Vigilant and bold


BRAZENER
  A "brazener" was a medieval maker of armour, one who braised or welded, or who manufactured alloys such as brass, from copper and tin.

The surname is developed from the pre 7th Century Old English "Braesen", although oddly the first recording of the use of the word does not seem to be before 1552 when the term "A Brassin Ymage" first appears.

In the modern idiom there are at least nine known surname spelling variations including Brasener, Brazenor, and Brasner.

The surname development includes Randolph Brasner, a witness at Spitalfields on November 19th 1737, whilst William Brazener was christened at St. Katherine by the Tower, on November 10th 1782.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Braysher, which was dated 1637, who married Joane Miller at St. Botolps, Bishopgate, London, during the reign of King Charles I, 1625 - 1649.


BROWN
  This prolific surname derives from the pre 7th century Germanic and Anglo-Saxon word "brun" or the Olde Norse personal name "Bruni". Originally this name would probably have been a nickname for a person with a brown complexion or hair, although it may also have referred to someone who habitually wore brown clothing, such as a monk or cleric.

The baptismal name as Brun, or the Latin Brunus, was a popular name in the period up to the introduction of surnames in the 12th century. These names could have arisen from old Germanic roots such as "Brunwine" or "Brungar".

Recorded in many spellings from Brown, Broune, and De Bruyn, to Brauner, Bruni and Brunet.

Amongst the early surname recordings are those of Hugh Bron of Stafford, England, in the year 1274, and Hugo Brun of Erfurt, Germany, in 1407. Christopher Browne is recorded as being one of the very first settlers in the new American colonies. In the very first listing of the colonists of New England he is shown to be "living in Virginea, on February 16th 1623.

The first recorded spelling of the family name anywhere in the world is probably that of William le Brun, which was dated 1169, in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Northumberland, England. This was during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Floreat majestas
Motto translated: Let majesty flourish


BRUNT
  This surname of English origin may be a topographical name for someone who lived by a piece of ground that had been cleared by fire, deriving from the middle English "brent" meaning "burnt".

Alternatively it can be a locational name from one of the places in Devon and Somerset so called from the Old English pre 7th Century "brant" meaning "steep" or from the early Celtic "brant", meaning "hill" or "high place".

Finally it can be a nickname for a criminal who had been branded.

Variations in spelling include Brand, Brind, Brunton, Brunten, Bruntin and others.

Early recordings of this surname include one Robert de Brente (1269) in the "Assize Rolls of Somerset" and Thomas de Brente (1273) in "The Subsidy Rolls of Cambridgeshire". Magdalin Brunt married John Williamson at St. Dunstan, London on September 26th 1580, and Susan, daughter of Robert Brunt, was christened at St. John Hackney, London in August 1608. One Edward Burnt emigrated to Barbados in January 1634.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Fulco de Brent, which was dated 1216 in the History of Norfolk, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Fax mentis incendium gloriae
Motto translated: The torch of glory inflames the mind


BURTON
  Burton is one of the thousands of new names that the Norman Conquest brought to England in 1066. The Burton family were descended from Drogo de Beuvriere, a kinsman of William the Conqueror, and lived in Yorkshire, where they held lands at Burton Agnes, Burton Constable and Burton Pidsea.

The Domesday Book of 1086 records many similar places as, variously, "Burtone, Bortune" or "Bortone", and most share the same meaning and derivation, which is "the settlement by a fort", This is derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "burg, burh", fort, often referring to a Roman or other pre-English fort, sometimes a fortified manor, with "tun", enclosure, settlement.

Other variations include Burton in Somerset which means "the settlement on the River Bredy" or "Bride", and Burton in Sussex which translates as "Budeca's settlement".

The variations of the name Burton include Birton, Byrton, Burtone, Borton and Bourton.

The surname has been recorded from the mid 12th Century with one Gerard de Burton shown in the 1178 Warwickshire Pipe Rolls. Some of the first immigrants to cross the Atlantic to North America carried the name Burton, or a variant listed above: Richard Burton who settled in Virginia in 1624; John Burton settled in the Barbados with his wife Elizabeth and son Charles in 1678; Joseph Burton settled in Portland Maine in 1820.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ioluard in Burhtun, which was dated circa 1150, in the "Yorkshire Charters", during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.

Motto: Lux vitae
Motto Translated: The light is my guide


BUTLER
  This surname is of Norman-French origins, and is one of the very few to be accepted as being pre-1066 in both origin and recording, and even rarer still to be recorded in France itself. Then name is job descriptive, deriving the Olde French "bouteillier" and meaning one who supplies the bottles but more specifically the wine. The Anglo-French version was "butuiller" and both are ultimately derived from the Latin word "buticula", meaning bottle, and "buttis", which means cask. However "Bouteillier" in the surname sense defines status in a royal, or at least noble, household.

As well as the Bouteillier or Butler (Master of the Pantry), other titles leading to occupational names included the Marshall (Master of the Horse), the Steward (Head of the Estate), and the (dis)Spencer (Head of Provisions).

That the original Butlers were much more than servants of any sort is shown by the fact that, when Theobald FitzWalter accompanied King Henry II on his conquest of Ireland in 1171, he was not only appointed "Chief Butler of Ireland" but he subsequently adopted Butler as his surname.

Other spelling variants include Buttler and McRichard.

In England and Ireland no less than ninety four Coats of Arms have been granted to Boteler and Butler, the first being to Robert de Pincerna, butler to Randolf, Earl of Chester, in 1158, and the first of the Butlers of Cheshire. The Butler's were also amongst the first into the new American Colonies, Francis Butler, aged 18, being recorded as a settler at "Elizabeth Cittie, Virginea" in January 1624. He arrived on the ship "Bonaventure" and was a member of the Governor's guard, a case of history repeating itself.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugo Buteiller, which was dated 1055, in the calendar of preserved ancient documents of France, during the reign of King Henry I of France, 1031 - 1060.

Motto: Comme je trouve
Motto translated: As I find


CADLE
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational surname deriving from any one of the places called "Caldwell" in North Yorkshire and Warwickshire, "Cauldwell" in Bedfordshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, and other places named with the same elements such as "Chadwell", "Chardwell" and "Caudle Green".

The place in Yorkshire is recorded as "Caldeuuella" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and shares with all the other places mentioned the same meaning and derivation. This is "the cold spring, or stream", from the Old English pre 7th Century "cald, ceald", meaning cold, along with "well or waell", meaning a spring, a stream or a well.

The surname is also found in Scotland, where it derives from "Caldwell" in Renfrewshire. This is derived from the Gaelic word "coillie", meaning a wood, and "dur" meaning a stream.

There are a great many variants of the modern surname, ranging from Caldwell, Cau(l)dwell and Cawdell to Cadwell, Coldwell and Chadwell.

John Caldwell and Margaret Matthews were married at St. George's, Hanover Square, London, in 1581.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam de Caldwella, which was dated 1195, in the "Pipe Rolls of Derbyshire", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Vigilantia non cadet
Motto translated: Vigilance will not miscarry


CAMERON
  This Scottish surname has two origins. The first is a Highland clan name, that developed out of a nickname from the Gaelic "cam" meaning crooked or bent, plus "sron", meaning nose.

Secondly, in the Lowlands of Scotland, it is normally a locational name from any of the various places so called, all of which show early forms such as "Cambrun", and are named from the Gaelic "cam" plus "brun", or hill. There are places called Cameron in Lennox, in Fife, and near Edinburgh.

Earliest recordings include: Hugh Cambrun (1219), Sheriff of Forfare, and Johannes Cambron (1233), a witness in Moray. Church records include the christenings of John, son of John and Helen Cameron, on September 5th 1628 in Edinburgh, and Robert, son of James and Anna Cameron, on February 25th 1666 in Edinburgh. Walter Cameron married Hannah Blake on December 6th 1725 at St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster.

Other spellings converted from Gaelic include MacGuillonies and MacSorlies.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam de Kamerun, which was dated 1214, who witnessed a charter by David de Hayu to the monks of Cupar, during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland, 1214 - 1249.

Motto: Aonaibh ri cheile
Motto translated: Unite


CANTRILL
  This name is early medieval and has three derivations. The first is job descriptive, and refers to a bellman or one who rang the "Chanterelles" - the treble bells, or who sang the treble in a choir. The derivation is from the Old French, the word being introduced by the Normans after 1066. A second derivation is that the name refers to one of the Norman knights who came from the area of Chantarel. Alternatively, the name can also be a diminutive meaning "son of Cant or Chant".

There are at least five modern alternative spellings including Chantrell, Chantrill, Cantrell, Cantrill and Cantwell.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Philip Canterel which was dated 1203, in the "Staffordshire Assize Court" during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Propio vos sanguine pasco
Motto translated: I feed you with kindred blood


CAPPER
  Recorded in several forms including Capp, Capps, Cape, Capes and Capper, this long-established surname is of early medieval English origin. It is either a metonymic occupational name for a maker of caps and hats, or a nickname for a wearer of some kind of noticeable headgear. The derivation is from the Middle English word "cappe", meaning a hat, ultimately from the Old English pre 7th Century "caep". Job-descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the namebearer, and later became hereditary, and nicknames were given with reference to personal characteristics such as physical attributes or peculiarities, and to habits of dress.

An alternative is that the name is derived from one who originally lived at Le Cappere of Ayncourt and who came over to England at the time of the Norman Conquest. However, the "er" suffix usually denotes someone who makes things, in this case, caps or hats.

One Alward Cappe was noted in the 1178 Pipe Rolls of Kent, and a Roger Caps appears in the 1327 Subsidy Rolls of Somerset. The final "s" attached to the name indicates the patronymic, and is a reduced form of "son of". Another early example of the name recording is that of William Cappier of Essex in the year 1285, whilst amongst the early recordings in the church registers is that of Thomas Capp, who was christened at St. Benet Fink, London, on February 23rd 1556.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Cappa, which was dated 1111, in "Early London Names", during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.


CAREFIELD
  This is likely to be an anglicised version of the Irish names; Mac Cathmhaoil, O Gamhna, O Caibheanaigh, Mac Conghamhna and Mac Carrghamhna. The anglicised form is actually Gaffney but early attempts by church officials to record the name meant that they translated it exactly as it was pronounced. Consequently the name has many similar incorrect spellings, such as Caufield, Cawfield, Cawlfield, Caulkin, MacCaul, MacCawell, and others.

It would seem that the original Gaelic names were themselves derived from "the place where calves grazed" with some speculation that the anglicised versions referred to a Calfhill(e) village. However there is no record of a village with this name, the closest being a long-lost Cheshire village called Calfhalle.

As it appears quite late in the historical records, particularly after the Cromwell invasion of 1650 when Irish names were converted to English variations, this would further support the origin as being a spelling mistake.

The first recorded spelling of the name in this style was that of Sir Toby Caulfield, who was baptised in Oxford in 1565, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603.

Motto: Deo duce ferro comitante
Motto Translated: God is my guide, and my sword is my companion


CARRIE
  This name is of early medieval English origin and is an occupational name for a carrier, a porter, or someone who transported goods. The derivation is from the Old French "car(r)ier", introduced into England by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066. The word is derived from the latin "carrarius", itself from "carrum", meaning a cart or wagon.

An Irish variation on the surname is O Ciardha, which comes from the Gaelic word "ciar", meaning black or dark. The family name is believed to have descended from Cairpre, a son of Nial Hoigiallaig, King of Ireland c. 400 AD.

The development of the English surname has included Roger le Cariour (1332, Lancashire), John Kerrear (1379, Yorkshire) and Richarde Cariar (1559, London). The modern surname can be found as Carrier or Carryer, Du Carre, De Carrais, De Carrie, Du Carrier, Le Carre, etc. In Ireland the name has developed as Carey, O'Kear, Kerry, Kearie, and others.

One Zachary Carryer was married to Elizabeth Gladdis on the 31st of May 1644 at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, while on the 14th of February 1659, Mabell Carrier and Adam Holland's marriage was recorded at St. Mary's at Hill, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Carier, which was dated 1332, in the "Cumberland Subsidy Rolls", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377. The first Irish record occurs in 952 AD, in the "Annals of the Four Masters", which refers to the death of "Ua Ciardha tighearna Coirpe" translated as O'Carey, Lord of Carbury.

Motto: Sine macula
Motto translated: Without stain


CARTWRIGHT
  This surname is of early medieval English origin, and is from an occupational name for a maker of carts. The name derives from the Middle English word "cart", a transposed form of the Old English pre 7th Century "craet", or an adaptation of the Old Norse form "kartr". This is combined with the Old English "wyrhta" or "wryhta", meaning craftsman, itself derived from "wyrcan", to work or make. This latter element appears in a number of medieval surnames such as Wainwright, a maker of wagons; and Wheelwright, a wheel-maker. See WAINWRIGHT below.

Interestingly, although the surname Cartwright is recorded at the end of the 13th Century, as a vocabulary word it does not occur before the 15th Century. The name development since then includes: Richard the Cartwrytte (1290, Cheshire), and William le Cartewryght (circa 1300, Yorkshire). Henry Cartwright married Alyce Lvnne on May 30th 1579, at St. Giles' Cripplegate, London, and John Cartwright was an early settler in Virginia; he is listed as living in "James City" in 1623.

Modern spelling variations include Cartright, Carthwright, Cautheret, Cateray, Catherick, and Chartwright.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John le Cartwereste, which was dated 1275, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Worcesterhowe", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Defend the fold


CHALK
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and has three possible interpretations. Firstly, it may be a locational name from any of the various places so called, for example, Chalk in Kent or Chalke in Wiltshire. The former was recorded as "Cealce" in the Saxon Cartulary in the 10th Century, while the latter appears as "Chelche" in the Domesday Book of 1086. The placenames are composed of the Old English pre 7th Century "cealc(e)", meaning chalk.

The surname may however be of topographical origin for a dweller on chalky soil or a chalk down, from the same Old English element as above. It might also be vocational from a "chalker", or professional whitewasher in the days when most people couldn't afford paint. The whitewash was an emulsion of lime but it had to be applied twice a year by a "chalker". This derivation of the name is developed from the Anglo-Saxon "cealcian" meaning to whiten.

Early examples of the surname include Ralph de Chalke, in the Archaeological Records of Kent in 1268, and William atte Chalke, in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex in 1296. Among the many variant spellings are Chaulke, Caulk, Chalker, Chalkley and more.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter de Chelka, which was dated 1177, in the "Pipe Rolls of Wiltshire", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


CHANDLER
  This surname is of early medieval English origin and is an occupational name for a maker or seller of candles. The derivation is from the Middle English "cha(u)ndeler" or the Old French "chandelier" The ultimate derivation is the Late Latin "candelarius", a derivative of "candela" meaning a candle, along with the suffix "-er", meaning one who does or works with something.

The name may also, more rarely, have denoted someone who was responsible for the lighting arrangements in a large house, or else one who owed rent in the form of wax or candles.

The surname can also be found as Chantler, Chaundler and Candler.

On February 13th 1562, the marriage of William Chandler and Agnes Gibbs took place at the Church of Harrow on the Hill, London. One of the earliest settlers in the New World was Arthur Chandler, who was recorded as living in Virginia on February 16th 1623.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Matthew le Candeler, which was dated 1274, in the "Hundred Rolls of London", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272-1307.


CHILD
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, with several entries in the "Dictionary of National Biography", and having no less than twelve Coats of Arms. It originated as a nickname with various possible applications from the Old English pre 7th Century "cild" which means a child. Firstly, it was widely used as an affectionate term of address and as such appears as an Old English byname. Secondly, the word "child" was used as a status name for a young man of noble birth. Thirdly, it was applied to a young nobleman awaiting knighthood, and finally it was used as a pet name for the youngest child in the family at the time of the parents death.

The Anglo-Saxon word "cild" was also used to denote someone who worked as a military officer (comparable to a modern sergeant) in the army to indicate that they were in charge of the junior ranks, or children. By the 14th century the term became applied to all children.

Other spelling variations of the name include Childe, Childes, and Childs. It is one of the earliest of all recorded surnames, and where it occurs the final "s" is a patronymic or short form of "son".

Early recordings of the name include Gode Cild (Suffolk, 1095), Roger le Child (Berkshire, 1204) and Emma Child (Yorkshire, 1379). Sir Francis Child (1642 - 1713) was Lord Mayor of London, 1698 - 1699.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Aluric Child, which was dated 1086 in the Domesday Book for Essex, during the reign of King William the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Imitari quam invidere
Translation: To imitate rather than envy


CHILDS
  See CHILD above


CHORLTON
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from any of the various places named with the Old English pre 7th Century "ceorla", the genitive plural of "ceorl", meaning peasant, and "tun", meaning enclosure or settlement.

These places include: Chorlton, a parish and village near Nantwich in West Cheshire, recorded as "Cherletune" in the Domesday Book of 1086; Chorlton, a parish north west of Malpas in Cheshire, containing Chorlton Hall; Chapel Chorlton in Staffordshire; and Chorlton upon Medlock, Lancashire.

Chorlton cum Hardy, an ecclesiastical district south west of Manchester, Lancashire, (recorded as "Cheluerton" in the 1259 Assize Court Rolls of that county), has as its initial element the Old English pre 7th Century personal name "Ceolfrith". This is a compound of the elements "ceol", or ship, plus "frith", meaning peace, along with "tun" (as above).

Alternative spellings include Chorleton and Cherleton.

In 1587, one Richard Chorlton, of Chorlton, was noted in Wills Records of Cheshire, and in 1603, John Chorlton, of Manchester, was entered in the same records.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alan de Cherleton, which was dated 1327, in "Medieval Records of Somerset", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.


CLAY
  Clay is an ancient Anglo-Saxon name and has two possible sources. Firstly, the surname may be a topographical name for someone who lived in an area of clay soil, deriving from the Old English pre 7th Century word for clay, "claeg". Topographical surnames were among the earliest created, since both natural and man-made features in the landscape provided easily recognisable distinguishing names in the small communities of the Middle Ages.

In some instances the surname may be an occupational name for someone who worked in a clay pit, or worked with clay, for example someone who built with wattle and daub. Job descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the name bearer, and later became hereditary.

The name has been spelled Clay, Claye, Cley, Cleye, McClay and others.

The surname is recorded from the latter half of the 12th Century. Reginald de la Claie is noted in the Pipe Rolls of Essex in 1200, and Nicholas del Clay is listed in the Subsidy Rolls of Yorkshire, 1302.

On February 6th 1568, Richard Clay was christened at St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, London, and Charles, son of John Clay, was christened on December 27th 1581 at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, London.

Early North American immigration records have revealed a number of people bearing the name Clay or a variant listed above: Jonathon Clay who settled in Virginia in 1643; Jonas Clay settled in Wells and Cape Porpus in 1636; Steven Clay settled in Barbados with wife child and servants in 1680.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ralph de Clai, which was dated 1172, in the "Pipe Rolls of Suffolk", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Per orbem
Motto Translated: Through the world


COCKLE
  There are two possible derivations for this surname. This is from the early Medieval English or Old French word, "cokille", which means "a shell" or "cockle". This surname may have been first applied to pilgrims to the Shrine of St. James of Compostella who sewed shells on their clothes as a sign of pilgrimage. A cockle-hat (with a shell stuck on it) was also worn as a sign of pilgrimage.

The second possibility is that Cockle is a corrupted locational name (e.g. of Cockhill) from a spot so named in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Alternatively it could be derived from the town of Cocquerel, near Evreux, Normandy.

Different spelling variations include Cockerell, Cockerill, Cockell and even Cowgill.

Margery Cockel was christened at Croston, Lancashire on October 3rd 1550, while Joan Cocle married Owen Lewes at Staplehurst, Kent on January 4th 1557. Richard Cockill married Joan Daie at Pembury Kent on October 14th 1565.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Cockel, which was dated 1198, in the "Pipe Rolls of Northampton", during the reign of Richard I, 1189 - 1199.


COLEY
  See COLLEY below


COLLEY
  Colley is an ancient Anglo-Saxon name that has two possible sources. The first is derived from Nicholas. Col was a common diminutive of the popular name Nicholas, and the form Colley was particularly popular in Yorkshire. Nicholas was the name of a popular saint from the fourth century, and was given to many children in England in the Middle Ages.

Another source derives from "colig", meaning dark or swarthy, and was a descriptive word used by the fair-haired and fair-skinned Saxon invaders to describe the original "Old English" inhabitants, who were much darker in appearance. There is also a possibility that some name holders may derive from the Somerset "colley" meaning, "a blackbird" but the essential translation is the same.

Over the years, many variations of the name Colley were recorded, including Coly, Colley, Collie, Caullie, Caulley, Caully, Coully, Coulley and many more. See COLEY above.

The name development includes Dande Colly, recorded in Yorkshire in 1219, Philip Coli (1275, Worcestershire), and Willelmus Colley (1379, Yorkshire). Robert Collie, aged twenty years, set sail in the "Hopewell" from the Port of London to Barbados, on February 17th 1634.

Thomas Colley and his family who settled in Barbados in 1680; and three years later John Colley and his wife Susan moved to Philadelphia.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh Coly, which was dated 1212, in the "Kings Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Unica virtus necessaria
Motto translated: Only virtue is necessary


CONDLIFFE
  This name, with variant spellings Cundliffe, Conliffe, Cunnliffe and Cownliffe, is of English locational origin from a place called Cunliffe near Rishton in Lancashire.

The name was first recorded as Kunteclive in the 1246 Pipe Rolls of that county and later as Cundcliff. The name derives from the Old English pre 7th century "cund" meaning a cleft, plus "clif", meaning a slope. Hence, "a slope with small valley or gorge in it".

The surname from this source is first recorded in the latter half of the 13th century. On August 9th 1685 the following entry appears in the Baptismal Register of St. Dunstan's in the East, London:- "Benjamin, son of John and Mary Conliffe or Condliffe, christened".

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Cundeclif, or Cunteclif, which was dated 1273 in "The Hundred Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Fideliter
Motto translated: Faithfully


COOPER
  The origin if this name is Anglo Saxon, deriving from the German "kuper" itself a derivative of "kup", meaning a container, and indicates a maker of barrels or tubs. The word was first used in England in the 8th century. Over the centuries the spelling and the later surname became confused with other forms such as Cowper and Copper, which themselves can also describe a maker of metal containers. In these cases the derivation is from the Old English "coper", itself a borrowed word from the Cyprian "cyprium" meaning "bronze". This latter description confirms the trade existing between Britain and the near east before the time of the Christian era.

The surname is not surprisingly one of the earliest on record in England, and likewise in America, Walter Cooper being recorded in "The Muster of the Inhabitants of Virginia" as early as 1619, and prior to the arrival of the Mayflower (1620). Early recordings include those of Selide le Copere of Norfolk in 1181, John Copper in the 1424 Friary Rolls of York and Ricardus Cowper, also recorded and Richard Cooper, Ecclesfield, Yorkshire on October 10th 1562.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert le Cupere, which was dated 1176, in the Pipe Rolls of Sussex, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Couper fait grandir
Motto translated: Cutting causes growth


CORK
  The Cork surname is derived from the Celtic word "corcair", a purple or red dye stuff and was originally given as a metonymic occupational name to a supplier of this dye or to a dyer of cloth with cork. The ultimate origin of the name lies in the Latin "purpura", the name of the shellfish from which the dye was obtained.

The famous Tyrian purple was made from a mixture of these shells and was very costly to produce. Because the woollen robes worn by Roman Emperors was dyed with this colour, purple became symbolic of nobility and power. The occupation of dyer was therefore held in high esteem.

The name has also been spelt as Corke, Coch, Gough, and Corr.

Adam le Corker, appearing in the 1296, "Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield", Yorkshire, held this position, (the final "er" on the name is the agent suffix). One William Corker, the infant son of Adam Corker was christened on May 30th 1596 at St. Mary, Magdalene, Bermondsey.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Geoffrey Cork, which was dated 1278, in the Calendar of Letter Books for London, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Sacrificium Deo cor contritum
Motto translated: A sacrifice to God with humble heart


CREESE
  This surname has two possible origins. Firstly it may be of Anglo-Saxon origin, from the Old English "creas", meaning fine or elegant. This was given as a nickname to an elegant person or one who dressed in fine or elegant clothes.

The name may also be of Old French origin, from "Crecy" in Seine-Inferieure, (spelt "Cressy", in middle English) and was brought to England by the Normans in 1066. Crecy was the scene of the famous battle in 1346 during the Hundred Years War.

The name may also be found as Cressy, Crease and Crees, while Creasey itself is widespread in Suffolk.

Hugo de Creissi was recorded in the Pipe Rolls of Lancashire in 1171. One Alexander de Crecy was mentioned in 1182 in the "Transcripts of Charters relating to the Gilbertine Houses", and Richard le Cres was listed in the Norfolk Hundred Rolls in 1275. Thomas, son of Thomas and Joane Creasey was christened at st. Dunstan's, Stepney, London on December 17th 1646.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Cenric Cres of Suffolk, which was dated circa 1095, in the "The Feudal Documents from the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds", during the reign of King William II, 1087 - 1100.


CROUCH
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a topographical name for someone who lived by a cross or even a crossroads. The derivation of the name is from the Middle English "crouch", meaning a cross, which itself comes from the Old English pre 7th Century "cruc". This word was replaced in Middle English by the Old Norse form "cross".

In the modern idiom the surname can be found as Crouch, Crowch, Crotch and Crutch.

William Attecruche is noted in the 1290 Assize Court Rolls of Essex, and Thomas Crouch is listed in the Subsidy Rolls of Essex (1329). Recordings of the surname from London Church Registers include: the marriage of Nicholas Crowche and Elsabeth Gylb on January 18th 1539, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and the marriage of Richard Crowch and Agnes Read on May 1st 1561, at St. Mary's, Harrow on the Hill.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gilbert Cruche, which was dated 1221, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Devonshire", during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Aut nunquam tentes aut perfice
Motto translated: Either never attempt or accomplish


DALE
  This Anglo-Saxon surname derives from the Scandinavian word dalr, meaning a valley, and describes somebody who dwelt in such a place. Dalr forms the first element in many English place names such as Deal, Dalwood, Dalham, and Dawley, although the more usual name style is as Lonsdale or Wensleydale, with "dale" as the second element.

The very first recording of the surname anywhere is in the county of Suffolk, in the region known as East Anglia, and here the land is renowned for being almost flat and without valleys, so there may have been an alternative meaning one thousand years ago. One possibility is that it might be derived from an ancient British tribe called the Dallingas.

It is recorded in a number of spelling forms including Dale, Dales, Dayle, Daele and Daile. It also has different spelling forms in other countries; Dahlen, Dahlin and Dalman (Swedish), Thal, Thalman, Dahler and Dallmann (German), Daal, Van Daal, Van Dalen and Daleman (Dutch), Dahl and Dall (Danish) and many others.

The name is also a very early recording in Germany, Lutz up dem Tal being registered in the town of Fussen in the year 1370. Scandinavian recordings are much later as hereditary surnames were the exception rather than the rule until the 18th century. The name was one of the very first in the new American Colonies, and certainly the first with status. Sir Thomas Dale (1560-1619) being Marshall of Virginia in 1609, and Governor from 1611 to 1618. Sir Thomas was responsible for the original land grants to the new settlers from the English Crown.

Other early immigrants to the New World bearing the Dale surname or a spelling variation of the name include: Robert Dale who settled in Woburn, Massachusetts before 1680; John Dale settled in Salem a little later, in 1682; and Edward Dale settled in Virginia in 1642.

The first known recording of the family name in any form is believed to be that of Ralph de la Dale, which was dated 1275, in the "Hundred Rolls" of the County of Suffolk. This was during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Non arbitrio popularis aurœ
Motto translated: Not by the caprice of popular applause


DANIELS
  This surname derives ultimately from the Hebrew male personal name "Daniel", which means "God is my judge", and was borne by one of the most important prophets in the Bible. The name does not appear in England before the Norman Conquest of 1066, suggesting that it was introduced by the Normans as both a given name and a surname.

The surnames generated by "Daniel" are numerous, ranging from Daniel, Danniel, Danell, Dannel, Dennel and Denial, to the patronymic forms Daniel(l)s and Danels.

In November 1644, Ann Daniels married William Furnas, at St. Katherine by the Tower, and Elizabeth Daniels married Richard Foster, on July 23rd 1644, in Putney, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Daniel, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book, Sussex, during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Nec timeo nec sperno
Motto translated: I neither fear nor despise


DAVENPORT
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from Davenport in Cheshire. Curiously Devonport in Devon does not seem to have produced surnames.

Recorded as "Deneport" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Devennport" in the 1130 charters of the Abbey of Durham, the place is so called from its situation on the river Dane. The river name is an ancient British (pre-Roman) one, "Dauen" or "Daan", related to the Middle Welsh "dafn", meaning a trickling stream. The second element "port" derives from the Old English pre 7th Century word for a harbour or wharf. This is ultimately from the Latin "portus", of the same meaning.

Early examples of the surname include: Ormus de Davenport in the Cheshire rolls of 1166, and Richard de Daveneport in the Staffordshire charters of 1203. In 1555, one John Davenport, of Henbury, was noted in the Wills Records at Cheshire. A family of the name whose seat is still Capesthorne Hall, near Macclesfield, claim descent from Vivian de Davenport (deceased circa 1257).

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de Deveneport, which was dated 1162, in the "Pipe Rolls of Cheshire", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Fear God


DAVIDSON
  This surname is a patronymic from the male Hebrew given name David, from "Dodaveha" meaning "beloved of Jehovah". This name was borne by the greatest of the early Kings of Israel which led to its popularity, first among the Jews and later among Christians, throughout Europe in the Middle Ages.

St David, the 6th century Bishop of Menevia, became the patron saint of Wales and the name was borne by two Kings of Scotland (David I, 1124 - 1153, and David II, 1329 - 1371). One David Clericus, recorded in Documents relating to the Danelaw, Lincolnshire and dated 1150, is one of the earliest recorded bearers of the personal name in England.

The surname was first recorded in the early half of the 14th Century, and one John Davideson appears in "a Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds", Warwickshire (1350). Different spellings include Davidson, Davson, Davisson, and Davids. One George Davison married Jane Hinksley in 1599, at St. James, Clerkenwell, London. One of the earliest settlers in the New World was Alice Davison, who was recorded as living in James City, Virginia, on February 16th 1623.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Davyson, which was dated 1327, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Merses profundo pulchrior evenit
Motto translated: Sink him in the sea, he comes out fairer


DAVIES
  Although more commonly associated with Wales, this name began as an English patronymic surname. It means "the son of David", from the Hebrew male given name meaning "beloved". The name is not recorded in any part of Britain before the Norman Conquest of 1066, and it is generally regarded as being introduced by the Crusaders. Soldiers, returning from the Crusades in the 12th Century, adopted certain biblical and Greek names, of which David was one, and gave them to their children, particularly their sons.

Amongst the very earliest recordings of the given name predating the surnames is that of "Dauid Clericus", (David, the clerk), in the rolls of the county of Lincoln for the year 1150, whilst Richard Davy appears in the Subsidy rolls of Worcester for the year 1275. Further examples include Thomas Dayson in the 1327 Pipe Rolls of Yorkshire, and Richard Davys is listed in the Register of the Freemen of the City of York for the year 1402. An interesting bearer of the name was Sir Thomas Davies (1631 - 1680), a bookseller, who became master of the Stationer's Guild in 1668 and was Lord Mayor of London in 1666, during the Great Fire of London. Another bearer of the given name was David ap Gryffydd, the last Prince of North Wales, who was executed c. 1276 by King Edward I of England.

The surname has also been variously spelt as Davis, Davie, and several others.

The first recorded spelling of the family surname is shown to be that of John Dauisse, which was dated 1327, in the Subsidy Rolls of the county of Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: En Dieu est tout (English), Heb Dduw heb ddim, Duw a digon (Welsh)
Motto translated: In God is everything (English), Without God without anything, God is enough (Welsh)


DEAR
  This is an early English surname with two possible origins. The first is from the pre 7th Century word "deora", meaning beloved and used as a byname, whilst the second is from the word "deor", used to describe a wild, swift animal, specifically a deer. In that case the name may have been a nickname for a fast runner, one who had some of the characteristics of a deer.

The modern surname can be found as Dear, Deare, Deares, Deer, Deere and Deerr, with diminutives Dearan, Dearing, Deering, Doring, and others.

Amongst the many early recordings in a wide variety of spellings are Mathew Dere of Leicester in 1196, Richard Derin of Norfolk in 1251, and John Deorin of Worcester in 1275, whilst the marriage of Thomas Dear and Anne Haynes took place on April 17th 1722 at St. Anne's Soho, Westminster.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Goduui Dere, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book of Bedfordshire. This was during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.


DELLOW
  This surname recorded can be described as being medieval English and there are two possible origins. The first is Norman French and residential, and deriving from the words "de l'eau" indicating somebody who lived by the water, or who possibly owned the rights to a lake or spring. The second origin is Old English pre 7th century and from the words "dell", meaning below, and "hoh", meaning a ridge.

Various spellings occur including Dello, Dellow, Dalway, Dalloway and Dillow.

Amongst the very early recordings is that of Walter Delho in the 1275 Hundred Rolls of Hertfordshire and Benjamin Dilleau, a witness at Christchurch, Spitalfields, London, on December 19th 1755. Other early recordings taken from authentic church registers and local charters include:Joone Dyllowe, christened at St Bolotolphs church, Bishopgate, city of London, in 1584, John Dillow of Clerkenwell in 1679, William Dillo of Westminster in 1714, and George Dilew, also of London in 1820.

The earliest recorded example is that of Henry del Ewe in the Hundred Rolls for the village of Oseney in the county of Oxfordshire, in the year 1250 during the reign of Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Notandi sunt tibi mores
Motto translated: Note well the manners


DEMPSTER
  This surname is of Scottish and English occupational origin for a judge from the old English "dem(e)stre", meaning to judge, which itself gave rise to the term "dempster", a title given to a "judge of the parliament, shire or baron-bailie". Until the year 1747 every Lord whose land has been elevated to a barony was empowered to hold courts for the trial and punishment of certain offenders within that barony. Thus they would be tried by the Dempster, the Lord's judge. "Deemster" is still the title of one of the two justices in the Isle of Man.

The surname itself first appears in the late 13th Century. One Andrew Dempstar made a gift of his lands of Menmuir to the Priory of Restennot in 1360 and witnessed a Brechin Document in 1364 in the "Registrum Episcopatus Brechinensis". A Robert Demster was bailie of Forfar in 1361, while Andrew Dempstar was "on the Assize of the Marches of Woodwrae in 1388". Thomas Dempster (1579 - 1625) was appointed Professor of Civil Law at Pisa by Comos II, Grand Duke of Tuscany and was knighted by Urban VIII.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Haldam de Emester or Deemester, of Perthshire, which was dated 1296, "Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland", during the reign of King John Balliol, 1292 - 1296.

Motto: Fortier et strenue
Motto translated: Boldly and earnestly


DOCTOR
  This is an English surname, but one with at least three possible origins. The first is from the Old English pre 7th century word "dohtor" meaning not a doctor but a daughter. For reasons unclear the surname from this source is not well documented. According to various authorities the name may refer not literally to a daughter, but perhaps to an heiress, one who may be expected to inherit her fathers land. As a further example of how words change their meaning, up until quite recently the word cousin was often used to denote not necessary a blood relative, but someone who was a close friend.

A second explanation for this surname is French from the word "darteurre". This was an occupational name for a maker of darts and arrows, and similar to the English Arrowsmith and Fletcher. The name is found in England as 'Dart' in the 13th century, and later Hughe Darteurre was recorded as a Huguenot refugee in London in 1635.

The third origin is a trapper of small game from the Old English words "dokc", meaning cut off, and "hare" which still has the same meaning.

Recorded in many spelling forms including Daughter, Darter, Dauter, Dafter, Dafters, Dockwra, Dockray, Dockrell, and Daftors.

Early examples of the surname recordings include Katherin Doctor at St James Clerkenwell in the city of London in 1570, whilst Durmaric Darter was christened at St. Peters Holborn, also in the city of London in 1609.

The earliest record is Alice Wilkinsdoghter, in the Poll Tax rolls of Yorkshire in 1379, during the reign of Richard II, 1377 - 1399.

Motto: Semper eadem
Motto translated: Always the same


DOLMAN
  This surname is of early medieval English origins, and describes someone who was an official of the village. The Doleman was responsible for the maintenance of the boundary posts and markers which delineated the village limits, and he was also responsible for the "dole". This was an area of common land which was divided into areas for different uses, such as grazing, cuttage and turvery, the latter being the right to take turf for fuel.

The word is derived from the medieval word "doelan", meaning equal shares, and it's from this that the modern meaning of "dole" comes.

The surname is recorded in the varied spellings of Dollman, Dollmin, Doleman and the locational Dole, Doll and Deale.

The name, perhaps not surprisingly, is regularly recorded in early Court and Charter records; Richard Doleman appears in the Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire in 1279, whilst one of the earliest settlers in the New American Colonies (Virginia) was Thomas Doleman, who appears in the Muster of Captain Raph Hamor, on January 23rd 1624, having arrived in 1622 on the ship "Returne" of London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Dolman, which was dated 1260, a witness at the "Cheshire Assize Courts", during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


DOLPHIN
  This name has its origins in an Old Norse personal name "Dolgfinnr", which was a common name in Northern England in the 10th and 11th Centuries in areas of heavy Scandinavian settlement. The name is composed of the elements "dolgr", meaning a wound or scar, and "finnr", the Old Norse personal name "Finn".

The modern surname also has an alternative form in the name "Duffin". This is also from the Old Norse "Dufan", itself from the Gaelic name "Duban", a byname from a diminutive of "dubh", meaning black.

Other variations in spelling include Daulphin, Dalphin, Dolphine, Dolfine, and others.

The name development has included William Duffin (1279, Huntingdonshire) and Robert Dolphin (1606, Lancashire). One Prudence Duffin married Richard Lloyd on October 11th 1637 at London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Geoffrey Dolfin, which was dated 1171, in the "Hampshire Pipe Rolls", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Firmum in vita nihil
Motto translated: Nothing in life is permanent


DOW
  This surname is of medieval origins, and is generally considered to be a nickname. It derives from either the Welsh "Daw", a pet name form of David, the Hebrew word for "friend", or it derives from "dawe", the jackdaw. The latter version shows the robust Middle English sense of humour, as the jackdaw was renowned for its colourful display and loud, raucous call. Clearly the original nameholders were literally "Jack the lad(s)"!

Spellings include Dowe, Dows, McDow, Doves and others.

The name recordings include: Robert Dow, of Cumberland, in the 1332 Subsidy Rolls, and Lawrence Dow, of Somerset, a witness at the Assize Court held at Taunton in 1254. The famous John Doe of America history was a "Dow", a John Dow being recorded in Enfield, on January 1st 1589, although the first Dowe into America would seem to be Henrey Dowe, of Ormsby, Norfolk, on April 11th 1637. He was preceded in May 1635 by one Joseph Doe, who left England on the ship "Mathew of London" under warrant from the Earl of Carlisle and King Charles 1 (1625 - 1649).

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Dowe, which was dated 1194, in the "Pipe Rolls of Northamptonshire", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Patiens
Motto translated: Patience


DUFFY
  This name is an Anglicization of the ancient Gaelic personal name "Mac Dhubhshith". This is a compound of elements, "mac" meaning "son of" plus "dubh", meaning "black" and "sith", meaning peace, hence "son of the black one of peace". The name was borne by a 6th Century saint who was also Archbishop of Armagh.

The name has a number of variant forms; Duffie, MacDuffie, McFee, McPhee, D'Duffie and O'Duhig being the more common Scottish versions. English variations include Duff, Duffey, O'Duffey, Duffe, Dohey, Dooey, Dowey and many others.

The name is one of the oldest, most interesting, and widespread in Scotland, while also prevalent in all provinces of Ireland except in Munster, where the variant is known as Duhig. Johannes Macdufthi appears as a charter witness in Dumfridshire, in the reign of Alexander II of Scotland (circa 1180). Church Recordings include one John, son of John Duffy, who was christened on May 30th 1570, at St. Giles' Cripplegate, London, and James Duffy married Jane Armonette on December 17th 1684, in London. James Duffy, a famine emigrant, embarked from Londonderry to New York on board the "Mary-Harrington", on June 2nd 1846.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Macdoffy, who rendered homage in 1296, in the "Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland", during the reign of King John Balliol of Scotland, 1292 - 1296.

Motto: Deus juvat
Motto translated: God assists


DUFKIN
  This name is almost certainly extinct in the UK since there have been no birth records since 1837. This makes the derivation of the surname more difficult but the -kin ending suggests that this is a diminutive, or pet name, of Duff or Duffy. While the name was extant, it was restricted to Nuneaton (Warwickshire), Leicestershire and London.
See Duffy above.


EDWARDS
  The origins of the ancient name Edwards belong to that rich Celtic tradition that comes from Wales. This surname was derived from the personal name Edward which itself is derived from the Old English forename "Eadweard". The name literally means "prosperity-guard" from "ead", meaning prosperity or fortune, plus "w(e)ard", meaning guard.

The name was very popular in England and throughout the Continent largely as a result of the fame of the two canonized kings of England, Edward the Martyr (962 - 979 AD), and Edward the Confessor (1004 - 1066).

Compared to other ancient cultures found in the British Isles, the numbers of Welsh surnames are relatively few, but there are an inordinately large number of spelling variations. Many Welsh names were translated into English but this process was extremely imprecise since the Brythonic Celtic language of the Welsh used many sounds the English language was not accustomed to. Finally, some variations occurred by the individual's design: branch loyalties within a family, a religious adherence, or even patriotic affiliations were indicated by spelling variations of one's name. The Edwards name over the years has been spelled Edwards, Edward, Edwardes, Edwardson and others.

The personal name was first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, circa 800 A.D. as "Eadweard" and variously as "Eaduuardus" and "Eduuard" in the Domesday Book of 1086. William Edward, noted in the 1219 Curia Regis Rolls of Suffolk, is the first recorded bearer of the surname. The patronymic form first appears in Wales where it is still particularly widespread; Humphrey Edwards (died 1658), signed the death-warrant of Charles 1st in 1649, and became commissioner of South Wales in 1651. John Edwards (died 1776), translated the "Pilgrim's Progress" into Welsh (1767 - 1768).

Many people from Wales joined the general migration to North America in the 19th and 20th centuries, including: Old Edward who arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607; John Edward who settled in Virginia in 1699; Richard Edward, who settled in St. Christopher in 1633.

The earliest recorded spelling of the surname is shown to be that of John Edwards, which was dated 1498, in the "Records of Chirk", Wales, during the reign of King Henry VII, 1485 - 1509. John Edwards is descended from Einion Efell, Lord of Cynlleth, living in 1182, son of Madoc, Prince of Powys, who built Oswestry Castle in 1148.

Motto: Omne bonum Dei donum (English), Duw fyddo ein cryfdwr (Welsh)
Motto translated: Every good is the gift of God (English), God be our strength (Welsh)


ELDRIDGE
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and has three possible interpretations. Firstly, it may derive from the Old English pre 7th Century personal names "Aelfric" or "Aethelric". Both of these names survived after the Norman Conquest of 1066 in the reduced forms of Alric or Elric. The personal names are composed of the elements "aelf" elf, or "aethel", noble, with "ric", ruler, and are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Aelric, Alric, Alrich and Elric.

Secondly, the modern surname may be locational in origin from the place called Aldridge in Staffordshire, or Aldridge Grove in Buckinghamshire, which was recorded as "Eldrigge" in 1227. The placename derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "alor", alder, and "wic", village, hamlet.

Finally, it might also be a topographical name for someone residing "at the ridge", deriving from the Old English "aet", at, plus "hrycg", meaning "ridge".

Nowadays, the name has a variety of forms, ranging from Aldrich, Aldrick and Al(l)dridge, to Elderidge, Eldridge, Eldredge and Elrick.

The marriage of Roger Eldredge and Elizabeth Miller was recorded at St. James's, Duke's Place, London, on October 8th 1691.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Elrich, which was dated 1279, in the "Ecclesiastical Records of Barnwell", Cambridgeshire, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Dirige
Motto translated: Direct us


EVANS
  This surname, of medieval Welsh origin, is a patronymic form of the Welsh male given name Ifan or Evan, itself coming from "Iohannes" through the colloquial "Iovannes", Latin forms of John. The forename John has enjoyed enormous popularity in Europe throughout the Christian era, being given in honour of St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, or the nearly one thousand other saints of the name.

The ultimate derivation is from the Hebrew name "Yochanan" meaning "Jehovah has favoured (me with a son)" or "may Jehovah favour this child".

Because of difficulties translating the surname from Welsh to English, there are a large number of spelling variations. It was also common for members of a same surname to change their names slightly, in order to signify a branch loyalty within the family, a religious adherence, or even patriotic affiliations. For all of these reasons, the many spelling variations of particular Welsh names are very important. The surname Evans has occasionally been spelled: Evans, Evens, Evins, Evance, Evands, Evanson, Evason, Evens, Evenson, Ifans, Ivings and Heaven. See entry for HEAVEN below.

The name is well represented in the "Dictionary of National Biography" with over fifty entries, one of the most notable being Mary Ann Evans (1819 - 1880) who, under the name of George Eliot, wrote "Silas Marner" and "Middlemarch", and many other popular works.

William Evans, aged 23 yrs., who embarked from London on the ship "America" bound for Virginia in July 1635, was one of the earliest recorded namebearers to settle in the New World.

A Coat of Arms was granted to the Evans family of North Wales, descended from Rhirid Flaidd, circa 1070. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Yevans, which was dated 1533, in the "Records of Monmathshire", Wales, during the reign of King Henry VIII, 1509 - 1547.

Motto: Pro libertate patriœ
Motto translated: For the liberty of my country


EWERS
  This surname has two possible origins. Firstly, it may be a patronymic of "Ewer", which itself is of early medieval English origin, from the Middle English "ewer", itself derived from the Old French "aiguier" meaning "water". This suggests an occupational name for a servant who supplied guests at a table with water to wash their hands.

However, the name is also found in Germany, where it is a Low German patronymic surname, deriving from a Germanic personal name which was composed of the elements "eber", a wild boar, and "hard", brave, hardy, strong. This has also given us the English surname "Everard", which was initially found mainly in East Anglia.

Early examples of the surname include: Richard Lewer, in the Feet of Fines of Surrey in 1219; Alexander Euer, in the Bedfordshire Subsidy Rolls of 1309; and Rober Lower, in the Register of the Freemen of the City of York in 1513. Robert Ewers was an early settler and landowner in Virginia in 1626.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard le Ewer, which was dated 1185, in the "Records of the Templars in England in the 12th Century", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


FELLOWS
  This name derives from the Medieval English "felagh" or "felaw" itself coming from the late Old English "feolaga", meaning a partner or shareholder. The ultimate origin of the name is the Old Norse "felagi", a partner or companion. The final "s" added to the name is a reduced form of "son of (Fellow)".

There are quite a few variations to the spelling of this name, including Fellowes and Felloe.

A Walter Felagh appears in the 1256 "Assize Court Rolls of Northumberland" and a Robert le Felagh in the 1327 Subsidy Rolls of Sussex. The final "s" added to the name is a reduced form of "son of (Fellow)".

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Felawe which was dated circa 1150 in the "Catalogue of the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield", Staffordshire. during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.

Motto: Patientia et perseverantia cum magnanimitate
Motto translated: Patience and perseverance with magnamity


FOORDE
  See FORDS below


FORDS
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin and is one of the earliest topographical surnames still in existence. The name derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "ford", meaning a ford or a shallow place in a river of water where men and animals could wade across. The addition of "s" indicates "son of (Ford)".

The term was used as a topographical name for someone who lived near a ford. In some cases the modern surname may be locational in origin, deriving from one of the many places named with the Old English "ford", such as those in Herefordshire, Northumberland, Shropshire, Somerset and Sussex.

In the modern idiom the surname can be found recorded as Ford, Foord, Foard, Forth and Forder.

One Charles Ford was an early emigrant to the American colonies, leaving London on the "Paule", in July 1635 bound for Virginia.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Bruman de la Forda, which was dated 1066, in the "Book of Winton", Hampshire (included in the Domesday Book of 1086), during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Anchora sit virtus
Motto translated: Let virtue be my anchor


FOWDEN
  This surname is most probably locational from a place called Foden Bank in the township of Sutton, in the parish of Prestbury, Cheshire. The place name derives from the Old English pre 7th century word "fode", meaning to feed or graze, plus "denu", a valley, hence the valley used for grazing. The surname is particularly well recorded in both the county of Cheshire, in the diocese of Greater London, and with the "V" prefix in Devonshire.

An alternative derivation of the name is from the Norse and Anglo-Saxon god, Odin, which was also spelt as Fodin or Vowden.

The surname itself as been variously spelt over the years as Foden, Fowden, Vowden and Vowdon, Fodon, and Voddon.

Recordings taken from early surviving church registers of the various areas include Margarett Foden and Roger Spurstowe who were married at St. Mary's Woolnoth, in the city of London on October 25th 1565; Hugh Fowden who married Margearye Stubbs at Prestbury Church, Cheshire on May 15th 1568; Jane Vowdon at Hatherleigh, Devon, on February 9th 1637; and John Vowden the son of Stephen Vowden, who was christened at Sheepwash, also in Devonshire, on December 17th 1735.


FRANCIS
  This is a name of Roman-Latin origins. It derives from "Franciscus", which was originally both an ethnic name used to describe a "Frank", later to be known as a "Frenchman", and a personal name of the 5th century, which means "a free man". In the latter days of the Roman Empire, the Romans were permanently at war with the Franks. It may be that at this time the name was used as a derogatory term by the Romans, for somebody who claimed to be a free man.

Be that as it may the later surname, which dated from the 12th century, became hugely popular world wide, there being over two hundred variant spellings! These range from the English Francis, the French Francois and Frances, the Spanish and Italian Francisco and Francie, to the diminutive Franzel (Germany), and the patronymics Francesconi (Italy), Franssen (Germany), Franson (England), and the Polish Franciskiewicz. The popularity of "Franciscus" was due in large measure to the fame of St. Francis of Assisi (1187 - 1226), however the name was also associated with the Knight Templars (Crusaders) of the 12th century.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Hugo Francus, which was dated 1135, in the register of Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, England, during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: Insontes ut columbœ
Motto translated: Innocent as doves


FREEMAN
  Anglo-Saxon society was divided into various classes, of which "The Freeman" could be described as "Middle Class" in modern terms, although direct comparisons are not possible. Certainly to be a "Free born person" denoted considerable and jealously guarded status since most people were effectively slaves. The surname derivation is from the pre 7th Century "freo", meaning "free born", and "man", meaning a servant or worker.

The 1188 Pipe Rolls for Essex record one Freman Sceil, and this shows the use of the compound as a rare personal name. Other recordings include Reginald Le Freman, of Worcester in 1221, and Osbert Friman of Bedford in 1240. Edward Freeman (1823 - 1892), wrote "The History of the Norman Conquest" in 1867, whilst James Freeman of Nottingham, who died on June 20th 1968, was the last known survivor of the famous charge of the 21st Lancers at Omdurman, Sudan, in 1898.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Freeman, which was dated 1196, in the "County Pipe Rolls of Norfolk", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Liber et audax
Motto translated: Free and bold


FRENCH
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is from an ethnic name for someone from France, derived from the Middle English "frennsee" and "frenche" a development of the Old English pre 7th Century "frencisc", meaning french.

Originally, the French people were known by a single name and surnames only evolved during the Middle Ages when people began to assume an extra name to avoid confusion and to further identify themselves. Often they adopted names that were derived from nicknames or eke-names. They usually reflected the physical characteristics or attributes of the first person that used the name.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Lafrance, Lafrence, Lafrense, Lafrensse, Lafronce, Lafransse, Lafranse, Lafronse, Lafronsse, France, Francès, Frence, Frenche, Lefrance, Lefranche, Le France, La Franse, French, Frances, Lafrence, Lafrench and many more.

Irish bearers of the surname are said to be descended from Theophilus de Frensche, a Norman baron who accompanied William the Conqueror in 1066, a branch of whose descendants settled in County Wexford in circa 1300. Some of the same family settled in County Roscommon in circa 1620, this was the branch that produced Field marshal Sir John French (1852 - 1925), commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Forces in the First World War.

Some of the first American settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: John France settled in Virginia in 1651; John France settled in Virginia in 1698; Assmes France settled in Philadelphia in 1739; Erasmus France settled in Philadelphia in 1739.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon le Frensch, which was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Wiltshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Malo mori quam fœdari
Motto translated: I would rather die than be disgraced


FULFORD
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational surname deriving from any one of the various places in Devonshire, Somerset, Staffordshire and East Yorkshire called Fulford. The place in Devonshire is recorded as "Foleford" in the Domesday Book of 1086, that in Somerset in its Latin form of "sordidum vadum" in the Saxon Chronicles of 854, Fulford in Staffordshire as "Fuleford" in the Domesday Book, and Gate and Water Fulford in East Yorkshire as "Fuleford" in the Domesday Book.

All of these places share the same meaning and derivation, which is "the dirty ford", from the Old English pre 7th Century "ful", meaning foul or dirty, with "ford", which means a river crossing.

A number of bearers of the name Fulford are descended from the William de Fulford cited below, who held the manor of Great Fulford near Exeter. Early recordings of the name include Robert de Fulfort (1219, Yorkshire), Richard de Fulford (1280, Worcestershire), and Thomas Fuleford (1327, Sussex). One John Fulford was an early emigrant to the New World colonies, leaving London on the "Mathew" for St. Christopher's in May 1635.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William de Fulford, which was dated circa 1190, in the "Pipe Rolls of Devonshire", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199

Motto: Bear up


GALLOWAY
  This surname is of Scottish origin and is locational from the county of Galloway in the South West of the country, adjoining the Solway Firth. The name derives from the pre 7th century Old Gaelic word "gall" meaning a stranger or foreigner, and the Old English word "weg" which describes on land a road, but at sea, a navigable area as in the Solway Firth.

The inhabitants of the area, who were probably of English descent, were apparently allied to the invading Norsemen of the period rather than with their fellow Scots in the Midlands and North of Scotland.

The name has been recorded as Gallaway, Galloway, and in the registers of the city of London as Galawaie, Galaway, Gillaway, Gilloway, and even Golaway.

An early example of the name includes those of Gilbert of Galoway in the "Rental book of Cupar-Angus" in the year 1475 and Jhone of Galloway who was a tenant in Kethik in 1495. William Gallaway, given as being a shoemaker, was admitted a burgess of Aberdeen in 1606 and Andro Galloway became a burgess of Pittinweme in 1654.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas de Galwethia, also known as the earl of Atholl. This was dated 1230, when he made a gift of lands to Neubotle Abbey, during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland, 1214 - 1249.

Motto: Higher


GATEHOUSE
  This topographical name has several interesting features. It is medieval English being first recorded in usage as late as 1587 in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The name may also be job descriptive for one who lived at, and was responsible for, the operation of "the Gates", it being probable that "Gatehouse" is a developed form of "Gate".

Alternatively, the name may be derived from the Germanic personal name Godhard, composed of the elements "god", meaning good, and "hard", meaning brave or strong.

The name is also recorded as Gatus - in 1681 John Gatus was recorded at St. Martins in the Field, Westminster and Rachel Gattus at St. Leonards in 1791.

Other variations include Goddard, Godert, Godarte, and Godderd.

The name is first recorded in Kent in 1763 when Jacob Gatehouse, the son of William and Rachel, was baptised at Week-Street Independent Church, Maidstone.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Luke Gatehouse, baptised at St. Dunstans, Stepney, and dated 1668 during the reign of King Charles II, 1660 - 1685.

Motto: Cervus non servus
Motto translated: A stag not enslaved


GOODWIN
  This 7th century Anglo-Saxon name is unusual for having survived the Norman Conquest of 1066 and the later influx of Norman names, which killed off many of the early British names, or drove them into the outlying areas.

It is derived from the personal name "Godwine", composed of the elements "god", meaning either "god" or "good", with the second element of "wine", meaning friend or protector or "sweyn", meaning "follower of". It is also a baptismal name for the son of Godwin.

Goodwin has been recorded under many different variations, including Godwin, Goodin, Gooding, Goodings, Goodwyn, Godwyn, Godwine, Goodwine, Goddwin, Goddwyn, Goddywne and many more.

Early examples include William Goodswein of Lincoln in the year 1206, Roger Gudswen of Norfolk in circa 1320, and William Godewaynes of Worcester in 1327.

Examples of church recordings taken from surviving church registers include: the christening of Elizabeth, the daughter of William Goodwin, at St. Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey, on September 4th 1550, and the marriage of Henry Goodwin and Johan Boyser, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on January 16th 1564.

Many Goodwin’s emigrated to America including: Adam Goodwin who landed in Providence, Rhode Island in 1641; and Daniel Goodwin who kept an Inn at Berwick, in 1662; John Godwen settled in Virginia in 1650.

The surname is first recorded in 1177, when Walter Godwin, was listed in the county Pipe Rolls of the county of Norfolk, during the reign of Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Fide et virtute
Motto Translated: By fidelity and valour.


GOSLING
  This name has two distinct possible origins, the first and most likely being a variant form of an old French personal name imported into England in the forms "Goscelin", "Gosselin" and "Jocelin". The name, of complex origin, was very popular among the Normans, and has its roots either in the old German personal name "Gauzelin" meaning "a descendant of the Goths" i.e. "Gothing" or in the Celtic "Josse", meaning a champion.

The second possibility is that the name originated as a nickname for a keeper of geese, from the Medieval English "gosling", which means a young goose.

The surname has been recorded with variant spellings, including Gossling, Goseling, Gostling, Gos(se)lin and Gosland.

Henry Goseling, (witness) was recorded in the 1260 "Assize Court Rolls of Cambridgeshire". Ralph Gosling (1693 - 1758), topographer, published the earliest known map of Sheffield in 1732.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Goselin, which was dated 1185, in the "Knight's Templars' Records", Lincolnshire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


GRACIE
  This is name of Scottish origin, first used by the ancient Dalriadan people. The name itself means a "shoemaker" and the Scottish version of the surname is derived from the Gaelic word "greusaich" or "griasaich", which originally meant an embroiderer but later came to be used for a cobbler.

Alternatively, the surname can also be derived from the Old English word "groes" meaning pasture or grazing, and it came to mean someone who lived on a patch of meadowland. Interestingly, the use as a forename originated with Old French "gris" meaning "grey". As the English language developed, this became latinised to "Gratia" and then eventually to "Grace", with the pet form being created by the addition of the dimunitive suffix "ey".

Various spellings of the name occur including Gracey, Grassey, and Greacey.

In 1680, Stephen Gracey married Jane Allcock at St. James, Dukes Place, London on 23rd September. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gilbert Gracye, which was dated 1296, in the "Subsidy Rolls of Sussex", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Grassagh Abú
Motto Translated: Graces defying


GRIFFITH
  This ancient Welsh surname derives from the Old Welsh personal name "Grippiud", which gradually developed into "Griffudd", and "Gruffudd" or "Gruffydd". The first element of the name, "Griff", is of uncertain origin but is thought to mean "strong grip", with the second element "(i)udd" meaning chief or lord.

The normal pronunciation of the name in South Wales became "Griffidd", and those medieval scribes who were not Welsh generally wrote "Griffith", as this was the closest phonetic spelling within their writing system. Griffith, and Griffiths the patronymic, came to be used almost universally, either as forename and surname, throughout Wales.

The first recording of the surname in England occurs in 1524, when one Jone Gryffyth is listed in the Suffolk Subsidy Rolls. One Richard Griffiths was an early emigrant to the New World colonies, leaving London on the "Hopewell" in February 1634, bound for the Barbados.

The most prominent use of the name was Griffith ap Cynan, King of North Wales and founder of the first royal tribe of Wales. He was the eldest son of Rhodri Mawr, the first recorded Welsh King.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of David Gryttyth, which was dated 1295, the Lordship of Oswestry, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Firmitas et sanitas
Motto translated: Strength and health


HADLEY
  This is an English locational surname of Anglo-Saxon origin, deriving from one of the places called Hadley in Hertfordshire, Shropshire and Worcestershire, or from any of the places called Hadleigh in Suffolk, Essex and elsewhere.

The early recordings of the placename in the Domesday Book of 1086, for instance, are as "Haethlege, Hatlege" and "Hadlega", showing the derivation from the Old English pre 7th Century "haeth", meaning heathland or heather, and "leah", meaning a clearing in a wood. So the name means "a forest clearing where the heather grows".

Hadley in Worcestershire, however, is recorded as "Haddeleye" in 1327, and derives from the Old English personal name "Hadda". This is a shortened form of the personal names beginning with "heard", meaning hardy, brave, or strong, along with "leah".

Early recordings of the surname include: Warin de Hadlai (1212, Yorkshire); Richard de Hadlege (1311, Cambridgeshire); and John Hadley (1390, Essex).

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Matilda de Hadlegha, which was dated 1194, in the "Pipe Rolls of Suffolk", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Spes, decus et robur
Motto translated: Hope, honour and strength


HARRIS
  This ancient surname is English, Scottish, and Irish and they all derive from the 11th century personal name Harry, itself a nickname form of Henry. "Henry", which originates from the pre 7th century Frankish name "Hennric", meaning "home-rule", was first introduced into Britain during the Norman Conquest of 1066

It has been recorded in many spellings including Harry, Harrie, Harrhy, Harris, Harries, and Harriss. Over the next four centuries the name in all its spellings became very popular in England, although in Scotland the usual spelling is Harrison. The eight English kings called officially Henry, were all referred to as Hal or Harry.

Early examples of the "Harry" surname recordings taken from authentic medieval charters, and showing the surname development, include Nicholas Herri, in the 1327 Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire, and William Harrys, in the Eynsham Cartulary of Oxford, in the year 1406. Later recordings include those of Walter Harris (1647 - 1732), a court physician to King Charles II, and later William and Queen Mary, 1689 - 1694.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of John Harry, which was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls" of the county of Buckinghamshire. This was during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307

Motto: Ubique patriam reminisci
Motto translated: Everywhere to remember one's country


HAWKER
  The Anglo-Saxon name Hawker comes from when its first bearer worked as a hawker, or someone who held land in exchange for providing hawks to a lord. It derives from the Middle English "haueker", a development of the Old English "hafocere" meaning "hawker" or "falconer". Hawking was an important medieval sport and the training of hawks for the feudal lord was a popular practice in lieu of rent. The Magna Charta, 1215, conceded the right of any free man to keep hawks for his own use.

One Robert le Hauker appears in the Subsidy Rolls of Suffolk, 1283. Edward Hawker was christened on November 26th 1626 in St. Andrew's, Holborn, London. On May 15th 1654, Walter Hawker married Elizabeth Marcie in St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, London.

The name is now mainly found in the South West Midlands of England and recorded variations of Hawker include, Hawkar, Hawkir and others.

The name Hawker has been located in early North American records: John Hawker arrived in the Leeward Islands in 1654; Timothy Hawker arrived in the Barbados in 1685.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert le Hauekere, which was dated 1214, Curia Rolls of the King for Gloucestershire, during the reign of King John, 1199-1216.

Motto: Accipiter prœdam sequitur, nos gloriam
Motto translated: The hawk seeks prey, we (seek) glory


HAWKINS
  The name itself, deriving from the Old English 7th Century "hafoc" meaning "hawk", is descriptive for one who possessed that bird's ferocious instincts. The name, as a personal name without a surname, is first recorded in the spelling of "Havok" in the Domesday Book of 1086, compiled by William the Conqueror.

As a surname, the spelling was derived from the alternative word for a hawk, "havec" and is first recorded in 1176, when Roger Havech appeared in the Pipe Rolls of Dover, Kent. When spelt as Hawkins, the name is a double diminutive or patronymic which translates as "the son(s) of the son (kin) of the Hawk" and the earliest record is that of Roger Havekin in the Essex Rolls of 1298.

The medieval spelling is first recorded as that of Margery Haukyns, dated 1327 in the "Subsidy Pipe Rolls of Worcestershire", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Toujours pret
Motto translated: Always ready


HAYES
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from any one of a number of places called "Hayes". Hayes in Kent, recorded as "Hese" in the 1168 Pipe Rolls, and in Middlesex, recorded as "Hesa" in the Domesday Book of 1086, derive from the Old English pre 7th Century "haes", meaning brushwood or underwood. Hayes in Devonshire and Dorset is the plural of the Old English "(ge)horg", an enclosure, or "hege", meaning a hedge.

The surname can also be found as Heyes, Hayes and Hease.

Henry Heyse is noted in the Chartulary of Ramsey Abbey, Cambridgeshire (1240). Agnes Hayes married Willmus Smallrydge on October 18th 1543, in Devon. One Martin Hayes, together with his wife and child, is recorded as living in the Barbados in 1680; he was one of the earliest settlers in the New World.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh de la Heise, which was dated 1197, in the "Eynsham Cartulary of Oxfordshire", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Renovate animos
Motto translated: Renew your courage


HAYWARD
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is locational from any of the various places so called in Herefordshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire and Staffordshire. The name derives from the Middle English "hay", a development of the Old English pre 7th Century "gehaeg" or "hege", meaning "enclosure" plus "wude", meaning wood hence "enclosed wood". Great and Little Haywood in Staffordshire were recorded as "Haiwode" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and as "Heywode" in 1279.

It was a common practice in the Middle Ages for areas of woodland to be fenced off as hunting grounds for the nobility and "haywoods" would have been responsible for protecting those grounds from vandals, animals, and poachers.

The surname has been recorded in various forms including Hayward, Heyward, Haward, Haywood and others.

One Adam de Heyuuode appears as a witness in the Assize Court Rolls for Lancashire in 1246. John Haywood married Joane Tynnyswoode on May 15th 1547, in St. Mary Magdalene, Old Fish Street, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Anselm de Haiwod, which was dated circa 1199, in the "Chartulary of the Priory of St. Thomas the Martyr", Staffordshire, during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Alte volo
Motto translated: I fly aloft


HEAVEN
  This surname is of medieval Welsh origin, and is a patronymic form of the Welsh male given name Ifan or Evan, itself coming from "Iohannes" through the colloquial "Iovannes", the Latin forms of John.

See entry for EVANS above.


HENLEY
  This topographical surname is derived from the many places called Henley in Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Somerset, Suffolk, Surrey, and Warwickshire.

The name has had various spellings including Henleigh, Henlee, Hendleigh, Henelly, and more.

A Christopher Henley settled in Virginia in 1622, while Matthew and James Henley arrived in New York in 1768.

Motto: Si sit prudentia
Motto translated: If there be prudence


HENSHALL
  This is an Anglo-Saxon topographical surname which is derived from families living in the settlements of Henshaw in Northumberland or Cheshire.

Spelling variations include Henshaw and Henshawe.

Charles Henshaw settled in Maryland in 1742, Benjamin and John Henshaw in Boston in 1768, and Joseph Henshaw arrived in Philadelphia in 1840.

Motto: Per ardua stabilis
Motto translated: Firm in adversity


HEYDEN
  This is an Anglo-Saxon surname, and is a locational name from one of the various places in England called Heydon and Haydon. Haydon in Dorset, recorded as "Heidon" in the 1201 Feet of Fines; in Somerset, recorded as "Haegdun" in the Early Saxon Chronicles (1046); and in Wiltshire recorded as "Haydon" in the 1242 Book of Fees. All of these placenames are derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "heg", meaning hay, or possibly the words "hege", meaning hedge, or "(ge)haeg", meaning enclosure. This is added to "dun", which means a down, hill, or mountain; hence "hay down".

In some instances the surname may be of Irish origin, and an Anglicized form of the Gaelic "O Eideain", or descendant of Eidean. This is a personal name from a diminutive of "eideadh", which means clothes or armour.

The surname can be found as Haydon, Heyden, Heydon and Heiden. Walter Haydon is listed in the Subsidy Rolls of Somerset (1327). Recordings of the surname from London Church Registers include; the marriage of Jane Hayden and Nycholas Asheton on October 28th 1552, at St. Michael's, Cornhill, and the christening of Thomas Hayden on July 6th 1570, at St. Andrew's, Halborn.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas de Haiden which was dated 1200, in the "Place Names of Essex", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Ferme en foy
Motto translated: Strong in faith


HICKMAN
  This occupational surname, used chiefly in the West Midlands, is originally Anglo Saxon and means "servant of Hicks".

Motto: Toujours fidele
Motto translated: Always faithful


HILL
  This surname is of Old English pre 7th century derivation. It has two completely distinct possible origins. The first and most obvious being a topographical name from residence by or on a hill. The derivation is from the word "hyll", and requires no further explanation.

However recent research indicates that many name holders may derive from the Medieval personal and baptismal name "Hille". This is a semi nickname or short form of one of the many Anglo-Saxon compound names with the first element "hild", meaning battle or war, such as Hildebrand and Hilliard or the French "hilaire" from the Latin "hilaris" meaning cheerful. These are all surnames and personal names in their own right.

Different spellings of the name include Hille and Hyll.

Early examples of the name finclude William Attehil of Cambridge in the 1260 Subsidy Rolls and Thomas del Hill of Yorkshire in the 1379 Poll Tax rolls. One of the first Americans was Elizabeth Hill, recorded as born in "Elizabeth Cittie, Virginia" before 1620.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gilbert del Hil, which was dated 1191, in the "Pipe Rolls of Norfolk", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Avancez
Motto translated: Advance


HOBBS
  This name is early Anglo-Saxon and is derived from "the son of Robert". There are many recorded variants of the name, including Hobs, Hobbes, Hopis, Hoppe and many more.

The name is first recorded in Somerset before the Norman Conquest.


HODSON
  The Anglo-Saxon name Hodson comes from the baptismal name for Roger, which was originally derived from the nickname Hodge. As the naming tradition grew in Europe baptismal names began to be introduced in many countries. Baptismal names were sometimes given in honour of Christian saints and other biblical figures. There are very few Christian countries in Europe that did not adopt surnames from these religious figures.

Spelling variations are commonly found in early Anglo-Saxon surnames. Over the years, many variations of the name Hodson were recorded, including Hodgson, Hodson, Hodsdon and others.

First found in Northumberland where they were seated from very ancient times, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.

Research into various historical records revealed some of first members of the Hodson family to emigrate to North America: William Hodgson who settled in Jamaica in 1651; William Hodgson settled in the Barbados in 1634; Thomas Hodgson and his wife and child settled in Philadelphia in 1774.

Motto: Miseris succurrere disco
Motto Translated: I learn to succour the distressed


HOLDER
  This locational name is Anglo-Saxon and means a family living as tenants or occupiers of land. It is derived from the Old English "haldan".


HOLDING
  This is a locational surname and is derived from the estate of Holden, in Lancashire.

The name has had different spellings over the years including Holden, Holdin, Houlden, Houldin, and Howlin.

Among the earliest records of the name are: John Holden who settled in Virginia in 1637; Edward Holden who settled in Jamaica in 1685; Joane Holden who settled in Virginia in 1652; and Justinian Holden who emigrated to New England in 1634.

Motto: Nec temere nec timide
Motto translated: Neither rashly nor timidly


HOLT
  This is an Anglo-Saxon topographical surname meaning someone who lived near a grove or woods. It is derived from the Old English word with the same meaning.

Records show an Edward Holt settling in Virginia in 1651; Ezekiel Holt in Georgia in 1741 with his wife and son; and Mathew Holt arriving in Virginia in 1645.

Motto: Exaltavit humiles
Motto translated: He hath exalted the humble


HUGGINS
  This surname is a patronymic form of "Huggin", which itself is a diminutive from the Old French personal name "Hugh", which was introduced into England by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066. Hugh is a contracted form of any of the various Germanic compound names with the first element "hug", meaning heart, mind, or spirit.

This personal name was popular among the Normans in England, due to the fame of St. Hugh of Lincoln (1140 - 1200), who established the first Carthusian monastery in England. Thus the surname is composed of "Hug", the pet form of Hugh; the diminutive suffix "-in"; and the patronymic ending "-s", son of; hence "son of little Hugh".

Early examples of the name include Amisia Hugines, recorded in the Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire in 1327, and John Hugyn, mentioned in the Feet of Fines of Staffordshire in 1337. Samuel Huggins (1811 - 1885), was President of the Liverpool Architectural Society, and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings was founded largely due to his papers against "restorations" of cathedrals.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Hugyn, which was dated 1327, in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377


HUGHES
  This name derives from the Old French personal name Hu(gh)e introduced by the Normans after 1066. This name was originally a short form of any of the various Germanic compound names with the first element "hug" heart or mind, such as Hugo.

The name became popular among the Normans in Britain partly due to the fame of St. Hugh of Lincoln (1140 - 1200), who was born in Burgundy and who established the first Carthusian and Scottish Monastery in England. In Ireland and Scotland the name became "Aodh" or "Eoghann". In Wales, and other Celtic areas, the name derives from the Old Celtic "Hu" or "Huw", meaning fire or inspiration.

The name has been spelt as Hughs, Hews, Huse and Hues. See HUTCHISON below.

Early recordings of the surname include; Anne, daughter of Maurice Hughes, who was christened on October 9th 1586, at St. James, Clerkenwell, London; on October 12th 1670, Stephen Hughes married Cattrin Daniell, in Swansea, Glamorgan; and Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Hughes, was christened on June 14th 1687, at St. Thomas, Swansea, Glamorgan.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Hughes, which was dated 1327, Pipe Rolls of Somerset, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Semper vigilans (English), Y cyfiawn sydd hy megis llew (Welsh)
Motto translated: Always watchful (English), The righteous is bold like a lion (Welsh)


HUMPIDGE
  This is a rare surname with almost half of all census recordings being found in Gloucestershire. Despite this, it has been difficult to research, but it's possible that the name is an alternative spelling of "Humpage". If so, then it points to a medieval English origin, and is an occupational name for an indoor servant. The derivation of the name is from the Old English "ham" which meant a village, manor, or estate. In Middle English this word became the more familiar "home". To this was added the Middle English and Old French word "page", or young servant, both of which are ultimately derived from the Latin "paggio", and Greek "padion", both words meaning a boy, or child. Hence the full meaning is "young servant of the manor".

The surname can also be found in the Welsh border counties and various spellings include Humpage, Hompage, Humpatch, Humbatch, Hompatch and Hambatch. Recordings of the surname from English Church Registers include the marriage of Humffrey Humpage and Mary Turner, which took place on December 18th 1614, at St. Julian's, Shrewsbury, Shropshire; the marriage of Mary Humpage and William Williames, which took place at St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on January 28th 1632; and the christening of Thomas, son of James and Jane Humpage, which took place at St. Andrew's, Holborn, London, on March 5th 1636.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Humpatch, which was dated February 7th 1609, on his marriage to Elyzabeth Whetley, at St. Edmund's, Dudley, Worcestershire, during the reign of King James I, 1603 - 1625.


HUNTLEY
  This is an medieval locational name of English and Scots origin, from places so called in Gloucestershire, Berwick, and Aberdeen. The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th Century "hunta", meaning a hunter, combined with "leah", meaning a wood or a clearing in a wood.

Huntley in Gloucestershire was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Huntelei", and means the hunter's wood. The place in Berwick was called "Huntlie" and is now extinct, but gave its name to Huntley in Aberdeenshire, and was owned by the Earls of Huntly until 1638.

Thomas de Hunteley appears as a witness in the 1280 Assize Court Rolls of Somerset and John Hunteleye is noted in the Surrey Feet of Fines (1372 - 1375). On May 25th 1544, Mathewe Huntley was christened at St. Margaret's, Westminster, London. The name was found recorded in the New World in the 17th Century, when one Margaret Huntley sailed aboard the "Bonaventure", from the Port of London in January 1634 bound for Virginia.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas de Huntelega, which was dated 1176, in the "Pipe Rolls of Gloucestershire", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Je voil droit avoir
Motto translated: I will have right


HURCOMBE
  This unusual name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a location surname deriving from a now-lost village thought to have been situated in Devonshire, near the border with Somerset. An estimated seven to ten thousand villages and hamlets are known to have disappeared since the 14th Century in Great Britain, mostly due to the enforced clearing of large areas to create sheep pastures during the boom in the wool trade of the 14th and 15th Centuries.

The name Hurcombe means "the valley of the Herdsmen", derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "hierda", herdsmen, and "cumb", a coomb, deep hollow or valley. "Cumb" is very common in the south-west of England placenames, and "hierde" appears in the Somerset place names "Hurcot" and "Hurcott".

The marriage of Mary Hurcombe and Robert King took place on July 3rd 1598 at Hayes, London. Anstice Hurcombe and William Ostler were married at Curry Rivel, Somerset, on the 5th April 1629.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Margarette Hurkume (marriage to James Hutchins), which was dated 3rd February 1571, St. Sidwell, Exeter, Devon, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, 1558 – 1603.


HURRELL
  This is an English diminutive surname, but of Norman-French origins. Introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, it is derived from the verb "hurer" meaning to bristle or stand up, and was originally a nickname for someone with a good head of hair.

Various spellings of this name have been recorded including Hurran, Hurren, Harrell, Harrill, Horrell, Hurrell, and Orrell. An example of an early recording of the name is that of Richard Horel in the charters of the abbey of Rievalux, Yorkshire, and dated 1154, and John Hurle, in the Oxfordshire Hundred Rolls of landowners in 1273.

Later examples taken from surviving church registers of the city of London include Grace Hurrell who was married to Nicholas Reynolds on the 17th September 1627 at St. Gregory's by St. Paul, London, whilst on May 11th 1648, William Horrell married Aphra Thomas at St. Botolphs, Bishopgate.


HUTCHISON
  This is a patronymic name, i.e. "the son of Huchun", a diminutive form of the personal name "Hugh", from the Old German "hug", meaning heart or mind. St. Hugh of Lincoln (1140 - 1200) founded the first Carthusian Monastery in England; the popularity of the name was, in part, due to him.

In the modern idiom the surname can be found recorded as Hutchison, Hutchason, Hutchinson and Hutchins. See HUGHES above.

A Huchun Aleyn was recorded in the 1277 Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, Yorkshire and a Gilbert Huchun was recorded in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex, dated 1296. The patronymic surname first appears in the late 14th Century especially in Northern England and in Scotland. One of the earliest settlers in the New World Colonies was John Hutchinson, who departed from the Port of London, aboard the "Bonaventure", bound for Virginia in January 1634. Recordings from Kent Church Registers include: the marriage of William Hutchison and Jane Pary on March 27th 1759, at St. George's, Gravesend, and the marriage of Richard Hutchison and Susanna Flood on May 15th 1776, at St. Nicholas', Rochester.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Isota Huchonson, which was dated 1379, in the "Poll Tax Returns Records of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Richard II, 1377 - 1399.

Motto: Memor esto
Motto translated: Be mindful


IRELAND
  The name Ireland is actually Scottish and comes from the ancient tribe known as the Dalriadans. They lived along the west coast of Scotland, and on the Hebrides islands, and used the name to indicate a person who lived in the region of Ireland. In time this led to the Old English pre 7th century word "Iraland", so called from the genitive case of "Iras", meaning Irishman, and "land", territory.

According to tradition, this surname originated when emigrants from Ireland acquired the Norman surnames of de Yrlande and le Ireis. The names went through further changes, first occurring in their modern forms by 1664, in the Hearth Money Rolls for Armagh. The surnames Ireland and Irish were formerly well-known in County Kilkenny, but are now primarily found in Ulster. These names provide an interesting example of Hiberno-Norman name formation in that, unlike most Norman names in Ireland, they did not originate with people of Norman stock who then migrated to Ireland. Rather, they originated with Irish migrants who moved to Norman-speaking regions, gained their surnames, and then returned to Ireland.

Early examples of the surname include: William le Hyreis of the county of Suffolk in 1227, Robert de Irlonde in the Subsidy Rolls of Sussex for 1327, and Robert le Irish in the Assize Court rolls of Staffordshire in 1356. As Ierland the greatest concentration of later recordings is in the county of Lancashire perhaps commencing with John Ierland of Barwick on October 13th 1623. The surname was also widely recorded in the Poll Tax Returns of the county of Yorkshire in 1379.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Ireis of Shropshire, in the pipe rolls of that English county in the year 1169.

Various spellings of the name occur, mostly caused by translation from Gaelic to English, and include: Ireland, Ierland, Irish, Irlonde, Yrlonde, and others.

An early immigrant to the new English colonies of America was Samuel Ireland, aged 32. Together with his wife, Marie, and daughter, Martha, he embarked from the port of London on the aptly named ship "Increase," bound for Virgina in April 1635. Other immigrants include: John Ireland settled in Virginia in 1640; William Ireland settled in New England in 1663.

Motto: Amor et pax
Motto Translated: Love and peace.


JAMES
  This Medieval surname is of both Biblical and 12th century Crusader origins. Just like the personal name and subsequent surname Jacob, it has its origins in the Hebrew given name "Yaakov". This was Latinised in the Roman Period of history, first as Jacobus, and then, in the period known as "The Dark Ages" up to the 11th century, as Jacomus.

The actual meaning of the name is a matter for some dispute. Traditionally the name is interpreted as coming from the word "akev", meaning a heel, but has also been interpreted as "he who supplanted". Both of these meanings are influenced by the biblical story of Esau and his younger twin brother Jacob. Jacob is said to have been born holding on to Esau's heel, and took advantage of Esau's hunger to persuade him to part with his birthright "for a mess of pottage".

For a name with such indistinct origins, it has proved to be a great success story, with spellings ranging from James, Jayume, and Jamie, to Giacomo, Comi, Comiam, Cominetto, Motto, and even Gimson!

The first recordings are to be found in England, because England was the first country to adopt surnames and to properly register them. Examples from early charters include Christiana Jemes of Cambridge, in the Hundred Rolls of the year 1279, whilst one of the first settlers to the new colony of Virginia in the Americas, was Lewis James, who left London, on August 21st 1635.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter James. This was dated 1187, in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Gloucestershire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: J'aime à jamais
Motto translated: I love forever


JENNINGS
  This surname is of early medieval English origin although later it became strongly associated with both Wales and Ireland. It derives from the given name Janyn or Jenyn, a diminutive of the personal name John, and meaning "Little John". John itself derives from the Hebrew name "Yochanan", meaning "Jehovah has favoured (me with a son)" and was a 12th century Crusader introduction.

Soldiers of the crusades, returning from the Holy Land, gave to their children and specifically their sons, Hebrew and Greek names as a reminder of the fathers pilgrimage. These "English" personal names, which later became surnames, include such examples as Thomas, Isaac, Abraham, and many others.

In this case early recordings include Walter Jannes and Richard Janyns in the Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire of 1327, and Thomas Jenyn, in the charter rolls of 1428 known as "Inquisitions and Assessments relating to Feudal Aids". Elizabeth, the daughter of Thomas Jennyns, was christened on August 9th 1544, at St. Pancras', Soper Lane, London, and Jeffrey Jennings was christened on August 24th 1561, at St. Dunstans in the East, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Jonyng, which was dated 1296, in the Subsidy Rolls of the county of Sussex, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Conservabo ad mortem (English), Y blaidd nid ofnaf (Welsh)
Motto translated: I will preserve it till death (English), I fear not the wolf (Welsh)


JESTON
  Sometimes the origin of a surname is quite easy to trace, although why it developed in a certain way is not always so easy to explain - this is one of them! Recorded in the spellings of Isson, Ison, Izen, Jesson, Jeston, Yesson, Ysson, and no doubt many others, this is one of the many spellings of the patronymic form of "Joseph". As to how many forms there are of Joseph is unclear, but it certainly runs into hundreds and is found in every European country. Its popularity is mainly as a result of 12th century Crusader influence, when soldiers returning from the expeditions to free the Holy Land, named their children after the famous early Christians and in commemoration of their fathers exploits.

In this case the development would seem to have been from Joseph to the nicknames Joss and Jess, to which was added the patronymic 'son'. However dialects being thick, spelling being poor, and the change from Norman French (11th century) to Middle English (13th century) to Standard English (16th century onwards), has created this wide range of spellings.

Examples taken from church registers include Thomas Izen, christened at St Botolphs without Aldgate, on June 25th 1581, Thomas Ysson, christened at St Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey, on April 25th 1591, and John Isson, christened at St Brides, Fleet Street, London, on January 15th 1601.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Josepsone, which was dated 1332, the Subsidy Rolls of the county of Cumberland, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Consilii taciturnitas nutrix
Motto translated: Silence is the nurse of counsel


JEWITT
  This name is of early medieval English origin and derives directly from the Middle English male given name "Juwet, Jowet", in the feminine "Juwette, Jowette". These given names are diminutive forms, with the Anglo-Norman suffix "-et(te)", of "Juwe, Jowe", themselves variant forms of "Jull", a short, pet form of the personal name Julian; all of these were borne by both men and women.

Julian itself was adapted from the Latin "Iulianus", a derivative of "Iulius", a Roman family name thought to be from the name of the supreme god of the Romans, "Iuppiter"; the god's name is akin to the words for "sky", "light", and "day". The given name Julian was borne by a number of early saints, and its popularity is proven by the great variety of derivative surnames it has generated, including Jowet, Jowitt, Jewet, Juet, Jouet, Juett, and many more.

Early examples of the given name include: "Juetta" (1201); "Joetta" (1219); and "Juwete" (1227). Among early surname recordings are William Jouet (1299, Staffordshire); Richard Jouot (1300, ibid.); Robert Jowet (1379, Yorkshire); and Thomas Jewitt, listed in the Register of the Guild of the Corpus Christi in the City of York in 1488.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Juet, which was dated 1279 in the "Hundred Rolls of Huntingdonshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Animo et prudentia
Motto translated: By courage and prudence


JOHNSON
  This is an Anglo-Scottish patronymic surname of medieval origins and is derived from John. John is itself from the Hebrew name "Yochanan", meaning "God has favoured me (with a son)". This baptismal name with significant religious interest, has always enjoyed enormous popularity in Europe, and was particularly associated with the Crusades to the Holy Land in the 12th century.

In early British records John was usually Latinized as "Johannes", and in the Old French spellings of Johan, Jehan and Jean. By the beginning of the 14th Century, John rivalled William in popularity as a first name, which is rather surprising considering that King John of England (1199- 1216) may well rank as the nation's most unpopular monarch. Be that as it may John remains even in the 20th century an enduringly popular first name, along with its female versions of Joan and Jean.

The name has been recorded in the spellings of Jonson, Johnson, Joinson, Joynson, and the incredibly popular Jones, although this is always treated as a separate surname.

Amongst the very earliest of all surname recordings are those of Wautier Jonessone, in the charters known as the "Calendar of Documents", which relate to the government of Scotland in 1296, whilst William Johnson and Robert Johanson were recorded in the 1379 Poll Tax rolls of Yorkshire.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Jonessone, which was dated 1287, in the register known as the "Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds", for the county of Surrey, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Deo Regique debeo (English), Nunquam non paratus (Scottish)
Motto translated: I owe duty to God and the king (English), Never unprepared (Scottish)


JOHNSTONE
  This name is of Scottish locational origin from the lands thus called in Annandale, Dumfriesshire. The founder of the family, bearing the forename, Jonis, is believed to have followed his overlords from Yorkshire circa 1174 and was granted the lands to which he gave his name. The second element is the medieval English "tone" or "toun", from the Old English pre 7th Century "tun", meaning a settlement. So the whole name means the settlement of Jonis.

Spelling variations include Johnston as well as the Gaelic version Maclain.

Johan de Jonestone, a knight of Dunfrys, rendered homage to John Balliol in 1296. In some cases the name is locational from the city of Perth, formerly recorded as (St.) Johnstoun, or from the lands of Jonystoun, an estate in the parish of Humbie, East Lothian. On June 2nd 1718 Christopher Johnstone married Helen Murray in Langholm, Dumfries.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gilbertus de Jonistune, charter witness, which was dated circa 1195 - "The Annandale family book of the Johnstones" by Sir William Fraser, during the reign of King William of Scotland, 1166 - 1214.

Motto: Nunquam non paratus
Motto translated: Never unprepared


JONES
  This famous surname, which is widespread throughout the British Isles and the most popular surname in Wales with one in ten Welsh people being so-called, is nevertheless of English medieval origin. It derives either from the male given name John, or its female equivalent Joan, both Norman French introductions after the 1066 Norman Conquest.

Both names are written as Jon(e) in medieval documents, and a clear distinction between them on the grounds of gender was not made until the 15th Century. However, because western society has almost invariably had a male as family head throughout history, bearers of the surname Jones are more likely to derive it from a patronymic form of John, than a matronymic form of Joan. The personal name John, ultimately from the Hebrew "Yochanan" meaning "Jehovah has favoured (me with a son)", has always enjoyed enormous popularity in Europe, and particularly so after the Crusades of the 12th century. The name, which is found in some four hundred spellings, is in honour of St. John the Baptist, the precursor of Christ. See EVANS and HEAVEN above.

The surname as Jones, first appears on record in England in the latter part of the 13th Century, and also features as one of the most numerous settler names in Ireland, having been introduced in the wake of the Anglo- Norman Invasion of 1170. It is now found in every Irish county, especially in the larger towns, and has also been Gaelicised as MacSeoin.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Matilda Jones, which was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Huntingdonshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Deum cole, regem serva (English), Heb dduw, heb ddim (Welsh)
Motto translated: Worship God, revere the king (English), Without God, without anything (Welsh)


KENDALL
  This surname, long associated with the Lake District, is of Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse origin, and is a locational name deriving from either of two places in Westmorland and Yorkshire.

Kendal in Westmoreland was originally named Kirkby Kendal, and is recorded as "Cherchebi" in the Domesday Book of 1086 and as "Cherkaby Kendale" in "Records of Kendal" from 1090 - 1097. The placename means "the valley of the River Kent", from the pre-Roman river-name "Cunetio" with the Old English pre 7th Century "dael", meaning valley.

Kendale in Yorkshire is in the parish of Driffield, and derived its name from the Old Norse "kelda", meaning a spring, with "dalr", or valley.

The surname from both of these sources is now very widespread, being found in as distant a county as Cornwall in appreciable numbers, and has developed a variety of forms, ranging from Kendal(l), Kendell and Kendle to Kindall, Kindell and Kindle.

London Church Registers record the christening of Chrystover, son of Thomas Kendall, on August 12th 1544 at St. Mary Bothaw, and the marriage of Edward Kendall and Agnes Deuton at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, on April 12th 1572.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John de Kendale, which was dated 1332, in the "Lancashire Subsidy Rolls", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Virtus depressa resurget
Motto translated: Virtue, though depressed, shall rise again


KINNAIRD
  This name is of Scottish territorial origin from the barony of the same name in Perthshire. It is derived from the Gaelic "ceann", meaning head or summit, plus "ard", which means high.

Different spellings include Kinnard, Kynnard, Kennard, Kinzerd, Kynnart and others.

Between 1204 and 1214, there is a record of a royal confirmation of a grant by Richard of Kinnard, grandson of Radulphus Ruffus. One Rauf de Kynnard swore loyalty to Edward I of England at Kincardine in 1296. William de Kynard was burgess of Perth in 1428 and a Thomas de Kynnarde was a notary of St. Andrews diocese in 1430.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Radulphus Ruffus de Kinnard, which was dated circa 1180, "Genealogical collections concerning families in Scotland", during the reign of King William of Scotland, 1165 - 1214.

Motto: Qui patitur vincit
Motto translated: He conquers who endures


KNIGHT
  This is a medieval status name which developed from the Old English “criht”, meaning a boy, youth or serving lad. This developed into “cniht”, meaning a tenant bound to serve his lord as a mounted soldier and therefore a man of some importance and substance. Later still, the Middle English word “knyghte” came to mean an honourable estate conferred by the king on men of noble birth who had served him well.

Knighthood was established as a military profession by the 10th century. With the Norman Conquest and the resultant changes in the social order, knighthood became an established feudal rank, directly under that of a baron. It was associated with the holding of land, but was not hereditary. Because land was hereditary and knighthood was not, there grew up a body of landless knights, who often banded together into military orders, such as the Knights Templar, and the Knights Hospitalers. As time went by, cavalry decreased in importance in warfare and the excesses of the Knights Templar brought the institution of knighthood into disrepute. The Knights Templar were eventually suppressed by Pope Clement V in 1312.

By the 16th century knighthood became a civil distinction but people with the surname Knight are far more likely to be descended from a servant in a knight's household or from someone who played the part of a knight in a medieval pageant or won the title in some contest of skill.

Early recordings of the surname from this source include: Walter le Knit (1200, Oxfordshire), William Knight (1221, Worcestershire), and John Knyght (1275, Suffolk). Over fifty Coats of Arms have been granted to this illustrious family, one of the earliest being that granted to Thomas Knight of Hol, Northampton, in 1546. The Knyt name is recorded in the 1327 Subsidy Roll of Gloucestershire as living in Great Washbourne.

An examination of early immigration records and passenger ship lists revealed that people bearing the name Knight arrived in North America very early: George Knight, who settled at Hingham in 1630; Ezekiel Knight settled in Salem Mass. in 1630; Giles Knight settled in Pennsylvania with his wife Mary and son Joseph in 1682.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godefridus Niht, which was dated 1166, in the "Norfolk Pipe Rolls", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Gloria calcar habet
Motto translated: Glory has a spur


LANGFORD
  The name Langford is of Anglo-Saxon origin, derived from one of the many place names Langford, found in the counties of Bedfordshire, Devonshire, Essex, Norfolk, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Somerset and Wiltshire. Langford is classed as a habitation, or location, name. These were derived from pre-existing names for towns, villages, parishes, or farmsteads and were usually a means of identification for strangers, particularly those who had left their original birthplace to settle somewhere else.

It ultimately derives from places recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Langheforda, Langeford(e) and Longaford". All but one share the same meaning and derivation, which is "the long shallow river crossing", from the Olde English pre 7th Century word "langa", meaning long, with "ford", a shallow area of river.

The only exception to the general meaning would seem to be that of Langford in Nottinghamshire, recorded as "Landeforde" in Domesday Book, and this place derives its name from the "landaford", meaning a ford which denoted a boundary, in this case the border with Lincolnshire.

Early examples of the surname recordings taken from surviving church registers in the city of London include: the marriage of William Langford and Elizabeth Davis in Bermondsey, on June 14th 1582, and the christening of Batheia Lankford or Lanckford, at St Botolphs without Aldgate, on September 3rd 1692.

Variations of the name Langford include Langford, Langforde, Langfort, Lankford, Longford and many more.

Research into the origins of individual families in North America revealed records of the immigration of a number of people bearing the name Langford or a variant listed above: Abraham Langford, who settled in the Barbados with his servants in 1680; Harry Langford settled in New York in 1679; John Langford settled in Virginia in 1651.

Motto: Carpe diem
Motto translated: Seize the present opportunity


LATHAM
  This name is of Scandinavian origin, and is a locational surname derived from any one of the following places: Latham, in West Yorkshire; Lathom, in Lancashire; and Laytham in East Yorkshire. All of these share the same meaning and derivation, which is "dwellers (at the place of or by) the barns", derived from the Old Norse "hlath", which means barn, the plural of which was "hlathum".

Lathom in Lancashire is recorded as "Latune" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and in the 1201 Pipe Rolls of the county as "Lathum". "Laytham" in East Yorkshire appears as "Ladone" in the Domesday Book. Locational surnames were usually acquired by those former inhabitants of a place who moved to another area, and were thereafter best identified by the name of their birthplace.

The modern surname can be found as Latham, Lathom, Laytham, Leatham and Lathem. The marriage of John Leatham and Kathleen Lee was recorded in Carlton near Snaith in Yorkshire on January 28th 1626.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Latham (witness), which was dated 1204, in the "Yorkshire Assize Court Rolls", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Aequanimitate
Motto translated: Equanimity


LAWTON
  This interesting name is English, and locational in origin. It derives from the villages of Lawton in Cheshire, both being recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as "Lautune". There is also a Lawton village in Herefordshire and this is also recorded in the Domesday Book as "Lautone", although perhaps strangely this village does not seem to have been the originating source of any surnames.

The name derives from two old pre 7th Century English words "hlaw", meaning a low hill or a mound and "tun", meaning a fenced enclosure or settlement.

The name has been spelt as Laughton and Loughmane.

In the Assize Rolls for Cheshire, Philip de Lauton was a witness in 1281. Other recordings include Robert Lawton from Cheshire in the tax returns for Devon in 1642, and George Lawton (1779 - 1869) was a famous antiquarian and compiler of the book known as "Collectio Rerum Ecclesiasticatum".

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam de Lauton, which was dated 1205, in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Lancashire, during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Honor
Motto translated: Honour


LEA
  This name is of Old English origin. It is usually locational and derives from any of the places named with the pre 7th Century element "leah". This translates as "an open place" in a forest or wood, but may describe a water meadow, the word having different meanings in different parts of the country. Examples of the place names include Lee in Buckinghamshire and Hampshire, and also Lea in Cheshire, Lincolnshire and Wiltshire. The name may also be topographical, for someone who lived at a clearing or pasture, as in the surname 'Atlee'.

The name has been recorded as Lee, Lees, Lea, Leas, Lease and Leese. See LEESE below.

Early examples include Turqod de la Lea, in the 1193 Pipe Rolls of Warwickshire; Roger de Lees of Norfolk and Richard de la Lee in the 1272 Hundred Rolls of Wiltshire; whilst Robert Leese is recorded in the Wills Register of the county of Cheshire in 1593. Examples from church registers include John Lee, who married Agnes Masset in London in 1550, and Anne Lease, a widow, who married William Sulham also in London in 1577. Sir Henry Lee (1530 - 1610) was master of the ordnance and personal champion to Queen Elizabeth from 1559 to 1590, when his son took over the position.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailric de la Leie, which was dated circa 1148, in the "Charters of Northamptonshire", during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.

Motto: Force avec vertu
Motto translated: Strength with virtue


LEACH
  This is an English surname and was originally given either as an occupational name, or perhaps as a topographical name. Both origins are Old English pre 7th century. The first is from the word "laece" meaning a leech, and as such it describes a doctor or one who applied leeches for medical reasons.

Secondly, if topographical, it derives from the Old English word "loecc", from an earlier word "lacu" and meaning water. It therefore describes a person who lived by or worked on water.

Among the various spellings are Leech, Leitch, Leachman, Letch, Letcher or Litcher.

Early examples of the name recording taken from authentic surving church registers and charters include: Christopher Leach, christened at St. Giles, Cripplegate, London, on January 27th 1629, whilst on February 5th 1793, John Leitch married Katharine Hood at St. Leonards church, Shoreditch, London, and Mary Letcher marrried Joseph Chapman at St Dunstans in the East, Stepney, on December11th 1837. The musical composer James Leach (1762 - 1798), was a member of the King's Band and was known for his compositions for stringed instruments, whilst another notable namebearer was William Leighton Leitch (1804 - 1883). He was drawing master to Queen Victoria and the royal family for over twenty years.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Edmund le Leche. This was dated 1279, in the "Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Industriœe munus
Motto translated: The gift of industry


LEE
  See LEA above


LEESE
  See LEA above


LESSLIE
  This name derives from the barony known formerly as "The lands of Lesslyn" in Garioch, Aberdeenshire, as early as the 13th century. It is apparently recorded that the brother of King William, The Lyon of Scotland, granted these lands to Malcolm, the son of Batholf, in about the year 1190 although the surname is not recorded for sometime after that date. Certainly by the end of the following century the name was already more common amongst the Scottish nobility with Sir Norman de Lechelyn of Aberdeenshire rendering homage to the interim government of 1296. The "Leslie" name probably holds more noble grants than almost any other, and these include Lords Lindores, Newark, Leven, and Leslie itself, as well as several baronetcies

Further examples of the recordings include Symon de Lesellyn who was a charter witness in Fife in 1178, whilst Norman de Leslie was a hostage for the Scottish king in the year 1425. The name is also recorded in France as "de Lisle" after nameholders joined the Scottish regiments of the kings of France. Here they were rewarded by being appointed the Viscounts de Fussi. Variant spellings include Lesley, Lesslie, Lesly, and Leslie which all have the same origins.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Leslie, which was dated 1272, the rector of the church of Slains, Scotland, during the reign of King Alexander III, 1249 - 1286.

Motto: Crescat Deo promotore
Motto translated: May he prosper with God as his guide


LEWIS
  This name is generally accepted as being of pre 5th century Frankish origins. It derives from the personal name "Hludwig", composed of the elements "hlud", meaning loud or famous, plus "wig", battle. As such it was borne by the founder of the Frankish dynasty, who was recorded in the surviving chronicles of the Roman Empire as Ludovicus and Chlodovechus, the latter form becoming the French Clovis, Clouis, and later Louis. Lowis or Lewis is the Anglo-French form of the name.

More than fifty different spellings occur throughout Europe from Lewis, Lois, Lowis and Loisi, to such as Ludovici, Lotze, Lohde, and Ludwikiewicz. Confusingly in Wales, Lewis was also used as an anglicisation of the Welsh name Llywelyn, from "llyw", leader, and "eilyn", likeness.

Lowis le Briton was entered in the "Red Book of the Exchequer", Essex, in 1166. William Lewys was noted as a witness in the 1267 Fines Court Rolls of Suffolk. Llewelyn ap-Madoc, alias Lewis Rede, was archdeacon of Brecon, Wales, in 1437. One of the most notable bearers of the name was the American explorer Meriwether Lewis (1774 - 1807), who, with William Clark, led an overland expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean in the early years of the 19th Century.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Lowis, which was dated 1202, in the Pipe Rolls of Lancashire, during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Patriae fidus
Motto translated: Faithful to my country


LIDELL
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational name from any of the various places in Cumberland and Roxburghshire called Liddel. The placename in Cumberland was recorded as "Lidel" in documents published in "Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society", circa 1165. These placenames are composed of the Old English pre 7th Century river name "Hlyde", which means loud, and the Old English "-dael", meaning a valley. This river is also called Liddel today.

Variants of the surname found in Northern England and Scotland include Liddel, Lidell, Liddle, Liddall and Lydall. Persons named Lidel or Lidale appear in various records of the reigns of the Scottish kings David II, Robert II, Robert III, and James I. One Galfridus Liddal is recorded in Roxburghshire, in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland circa 1266, while other namebearers migrated northwards and became prominent in Aberdeen.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de Lidel, a charter witness at Largs, Scotland, which was dated circa 1202, in the "Records of Northberwick", Scotland, during the reign of King William, known as "The Lion" of Scotland, 1165 - 1214.

Motto: Hinc odor et sanitas
Motto translated: Hence fragrance and health


LINES
  This name is unusual as it represents one of the matronymic forms of the name "Line", or "Lina", a medieval female given name which was short for such women's names as "Cateline", "Adeline", and "Emmeline".

Matronymic names, derived from the name of the first bearer's mother, are far less common than patronymic names since western society has generally been patriarchal throughout recorded history.

Earl recordings of the surname can be found in Yorkshire including "Linous", (1572), "Lynis", (1644) and "Lynus", (1663). Arthur Lynas married Agnes Telzerson on October 3rd 1557 at Stainton in Cleveland, Yorkshire.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Reginald Lynes, which was dated 1340, in the Cambridgeshire Assize Rolls, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

The modern surname can be found as Lines, Lynes, Lind, Lynde, and Lynn.

Motto: Semper virescit virtus
Motto translated: Virtue always flourishes


LOMAS
  This is a locational surname from a former village called Lomax, a now "lost" place originally near the town of Bury, in the county of Lancashire. Recorded in the Middle Ages as Lumhalghs, the component elements of the placename are believed to be the pre 7th century Old English word "lumm", meaning a pool, and reflected in the dialectal term "lum" denoting a well, plus "halh", a nook or recess. It is estimated that at least three thousand villages and hamlets have disappeared from the maps in Britain in the past five centuries. The prime cause for these "disappearances" was the enforced clearing of land and the dispersal of the former inhabitants, to make way for sheep pastures at the height of the wool trade in the 17th Century, along with natural causes such as the Black Death of 1348.

Recorded in many spellings including Lomas, Lomaz, Lumox, Lummus, Lummis and Loomis, this is an English surname.

Early examples of the surname recordings taken from surviving church registers of the county of Lancashire include those of Elizabeth Lomas, who was christened at Farnworth near Prescot on November 8th 1549, whilst on January 13th 1562, Alice Lomax and Roger Wroe were married at Middleton by Oldham.


LOVELL
  This surname, with variant spellings Lovel and Lowell, derives from the Anglo Norman French "lou", a wolf (ultimately from the Latin "lupus"), plus the diminutive suffix "el", and was originally given as a nickname to a fierce or shrewd person.

One Richard "Lupellus" was recorded in "Ancient Charters of Sussex", circa 1118. Other early recordings in surname form include Willelmus Luvel, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Oxfordshire", 1206, and Philip Lowel, in "The Hundred Rolls of Oxfordshire", 1255.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Luuel, which was dated 1130, in the "Pipe Rolls of Oxfordshire", during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: Tempus omnia monstrat
Motto translated: Time shows all things


LUNN
  This is an unusual locational name in that it is dervied from a Scandinavian word "lundr" which literally means "one who lives in or by a wood or grove". So it's likely that the name first came into use during the Viking invasions of the early centuries.

This is further supported by its use as a locational name with various places that were subjected to Viking raids adopting the word as their place name. Examples include Lund in Lancashire and Yorkshire, Lunt in Lancashire, and Lound in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire. Over time, it's also likely that the surname Lunn then became a locational name and would refer to someone who came from one of these places.

One Henry Lunne is listed in the Register of the University of Oxford in 1581, and Mary Lunn was married to Giles Allington at St. Mary Aldermary in London on the 29th May 1687.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ralph de la Lunde, which was dated 1183, in the Yorkshire Pipe Rolls, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


MACHIN
  This long-established surname has two possible sources. The first is of pre 10th century French origins. It is job descriptive for a skilled stone mason and a member of the ancient guild of Masons. It was introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the derivation being from the word "machun". Job-descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the namebearer, and only later became hereditary, if the son continued in the fathers occupation.

The second is of Welsh and French origin and is derived from the personal name Matthew. The Old French pet forms of Matthew were Mace and Mache which were supplemented by the diminutive suffixes, -on or in, to mean son of. The literal meaning of Machin in Welsh is my little son.

The name is recorded in many spelling forms including Macun, Machin, Mason, Makin, Mackon, MacMacken and Masson.

Early examples of the name include: Roger le Mason in the Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire in the year 1200; Adam le Machon in the 1279 Assize Court Rolls of Northumberland; and Richard Machen in the 1284 Assize Court Rolls of Staffordshire. ecordings of the surname from English church registers include: the marriage of Kinborne Machin and Edward Garland on July 12th 1562, at St. Dunstan's in the East, London; and the christening of Mary, the daughter of Matthew and Jane Mochan, in 1803, at West Gate Presbyterian, Wakefield, Yorkshire.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of John Macun. This was dated 1130, in the "Ancient Charters of London", during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: Auxilium
Motto translated: Aid


MANLEY
  The name Manley is of Anglo-Saxon origin and can be either a location or a topographical surname.

The location name derives from one of the two places called Manley in Devonshire and Cheshire. The topographical, or place name, means "the common wood", derived from the Olde English pre 7th Century "(ge)maene", common, shared, and "leah", a wood, or glade in a wood. The meaning is a wood for the use of all, as in our modern "commons" which is shared land available to all the people.

In some cases, the modern surname may derive from a medieval nickname from the Middle English "mannly", meaning virile or brave.

One Thomas Manley, from Cheshire, is recorded on the Register of the University of Oxford of 1577.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William de Manelegh, which was dated 1202, in the "Fees Court Records of Devonshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Multitudes of spelling variations are a hallmark of Anglo Norman names and the name has also been spelled as Mandley, Mandly, Manly, Mannley, Manleigh and others.

First found in Cheshire where they were seated from very early times and were granted lands by Duke William of Normandy, their liege Lord, for their distinguished assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D.

Analysis of immigration records indicates that some of the first North American immigrants bore the name Manley or a variant listed above: Edward, James, John, Joseph, Michael, Patrick, Richard, Thomas and William Manley all arrived in Philadelphia between 1840 and 1860; Bridget, Ellen, James, John, Richard Manly all arrived in Quebec in 1848.

Motto: Manus hoec inimica tyrannis
Motto Translated: This hand is hostile to tyrants


MANNING
  Recorded as Manning and the patronymic Mannings, this surname is of pre 7th century Norse Viking origins. According to the famous Victorian etymologist Canon Charles Bardsley writing in the year 1880, it derives from "maningi", a word which translates as a valiant or strong man. The name is preserved in such towns as Manningford or Manningtree.

This seems to be the correct interpretation and would seem to be confirmed by one of the earliest recordings of Henry Maninge of Cambridgeshire, in the Hundred Rolls of land owners of that county in 1273.

Other early examples of the surname recordings taken from surviving church registers of the diocese of Greater London include: the christening of Johan, the daughter of Launcelot Manning, on January 14th 1564, at St. Mary Magdalene, and the christening of Katherine, the daughter of William Mannings, on September 6th 1570, at St. Mary Aldermary. Thomas Manning (1772 - 1840) was considered the first Chinese scholar in Europe and was the first Englishman to enter Lhasa, the holy city of Tibet.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ainulf Manning. This was dated 1190, in the Pipe Rolls of Kent, during the reign of King Richard I - the Lionheart, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Esse quam videri
Motto translated: To, rather than to seem


MANSFIELD
  This is an English locational surname, probably from the town of Mansfield, a parish north of Nottingham on the river Maun, in the county of Nottinghamshire. Recorded as "Mamesfeld" in the Domesday Book of 1086, the place was so named from an Ancient British (pre-Roman) hill-name "Mam", meaning breast-shaped, with the later addition of the Anglo-Saxon "feld", meaning open country suitable for agriculture.

Recorded in several spelling forms including Mandefeld, Mandifield, Manifield, Manterfield, dialectals Maniford, Manford, Mansford and the more usual Mansfield.

From an early date the surname became confused with the Norman locational name of "de Mandeville" as is evidenced in the recording of Elizabeth Mansfield or Mandeville, born at Ragnall, Nottinghamshire, in 1449. However, in 1469 when she married William Neville at Ragnall, only the surname Mansfield appears in the register. Other early recordings include Alice Mandifield, christened at Worksop, on July 4th 1582, Johnn Manford christened at St Dunstans in the East, Stepney, on March 21st 1584, and John Manterfield, whose daughter Mary Ann, was christened at Thorpe by Newark, on April 1st 1828. John Mansfield, who embarked from London on the ship "Suzan and Ellin", bound for New England in April 1635, was one of the earliest recorded settlers in America.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robertus Mannsfeld. This was dated 1379, in the "Poll Tax" returns of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Richard II, 1377 - 1399.

Motto: Turris fortitudinis
Motto translated: A tower of strength


MARSANDS
  Unknown, but it appears to be of German origin.


MARSHALL
  This is an English and French surname, but has its origins in pre 7th century Germanic forms. Although generally regarded as deriving from the French word "mareschal", the ultimate origin of the word lies in the Old High German "marah" meaning a horse, plus "scalc", a servant. This indicates that the term "marshal" was originally occupational for one who looked after horses, or a blacksmith. By the 11th century whatever the original meaning, and however high or low the status, the word useage had developed to mean that of the most important person in a noble household, and subsequently used to denote some of the highest offices of state, for example "Field Marshal" or "The Lord Chief Marshal".

Recorded in over fifty spelling forms including Marshal, Marshall, Marschall, Marschalleck, Marshalleck, Marskell, Mascall, Maskal, Maskell and Maskill, early examples include that of Rainald le Mareschall in the charters known as "Documents relating to the Danelaw", for the county of Lincolnshire, in the year 1140.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Godfridus Marescal. This was dated 1086, in the famous Domesday Book for the county of Wiltshire. Godfridus was a Frenchman, who was granted lands in England by William the Conqueror.

Motto: Deus providebit
Motto translated: God will provide


MAWER
  This is an Old English topographical and occupational surname and is an example of the many and varied modern names that derive from old agricultural methods. The derivation comes from the pre 7th century word "maw", which initially described a piece of grassland. This in turn had to mowed, "mawen", thereby creating the occupation of someone employed, "a mawer", in mowing the pasture lands to provide hay. Hay was the single most important crop in ancient times and the main or only fodder for all cattle that were over-wintered.

In the north of England, the suname is still most commonly found as Mawer, whilst in the south of the country, the medieval and Middle English word "mowen" generated the more familiar "Mower". Other recorded spellings include Mawe, Mow, and Mowe.

Examples of the surname recording include John le Mowere in the assize court rolls of the county of Somerset in the year 1225, John le Mawere of Yorkshire in the Pipe Rolls of 1297, Oliver de la Mowe in the tax registers known as the "Feet of Fines" for the city of London in 1317, and the marriage of Daniell Mower and Sarah Powle at St. Dionis Backchurch, also in the city of London in 1659.


MCKENZIE
  This is a Scottish surname and is recorded in Gaelic as Maccoinnich or Macchoinnich, translating as "the son of Coinneach". The derivation is from "Mac" meaning son, and "cainnechus", which means fair skinned, suggesting that the original nameholders may have been of Norse-Viking nationality.

The English pronunciation of the name is interesting as it preserves the medieval Gaelic pronunciation which, in most anglicised names, is usually lost. The name also appears in early Irish recordings as "Mac Cainnigh", although strictly speaking the translation is then different as it means "the son of the well dressed one"! This seems an unlikely explanation given the propensity of members of the clan to indulge in bloody deeds. Their feud with the MacDonalds occupied most of the period between the 13th and 16th centuries, leaving them little time to indulge in sartorial elegance.

Recorded in various forms such as MacKenzie, McKenzie, Kenzie, MacWhinny, Kenneth, Kennieson and Kensit.

Early recordings include those of M'Kenzocht of Kintail in 1491, and Alan McConze of Culcowe, Armanoch, in 1504. Gilchrist Makkingze was arrested for felony in Wigtown in 1513, whilst rather more lawfully Johannes McKenzie held the charter of Kildrin in 1606. Amongst the many interesting namebearers was Sir George Mackenzie K. C., (1636 - 1691), known as "Bloody George", for his treatment of covenanters, whilst Donald MacKenzie (1783 - 1851), was originally a fur-trader but later Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. Murdoch McKenzie, the Elder (1721-1797) and Murdoch McKenzie the younger, his nephew, (1743-1829) were both admiralty surveyors who published reports on marine surveying.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Makbeth Makkyneth. This was dated 1264, in the court of Pleas, held at Dull in Angus, during the reign of King Alexander III of Scotland, 1249 -1286.

Motto: Luceo non uro
Motto translated: I shine not burn


MCPHERSON
  This surname is of Scottish origin, and is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic "Mac an Phearsain", the prefix "mac" denoting son of, plus "pearsan" meaning a parson. The whole name therefore means "son of the parson".

Early recordings include Bean Makimpersone who witnessed a bond between William of Rose and Duncan Makintosche, captain of Clancattane in 1490; payment was made to David Makfassane "for twa gunnis of matel" in 1538, and Donald Makphersone, prior of Strathphillane, appears as a witness in 1585 in the "Black Book of Taymouth".
Edinburgh Church Records list the marriages of Aeneas McPherson to Margaret Scrimgeor on April 19th 1677, and of Alex McPherson to Anna Robertson on March 29th 1683. John McPherson was born in Edinburgh in 1784. He was a merchant who emigrated to North East Canada.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alexander Makfersan, which was dated 1447, bailie to the bishop of Aberdeen, during the reign of King James II of Scotland, 1437 - 1460.

Motto: Qui me tanget pœnitebit
Motto translated: Whoever touch me will repent


MELLOR
  This is an English locational name from the villages called Mellor in Lancashire and Cheshire. These villages obtained their names from the ancient British words for "moel" meaning bare, and "bre" meaning a hill. Both villages are located on the slopes of prominent hills.

Recorded in a variety of spellings including Meller, Melor, Mellior, Mellaw, Mellors, Melaugh, Mellarts, Mellowes, Meyller and even Mellop, the name has also been recorded as Malver in the year 1130, and as Melner in the register of Pleas in each of the counties.

Early examples also include Willelmus de Meller in the Poll Tax returns of Yorkshire in 1379, and in 1588, Edward Mellor of Oldham, Lancashire was entered in the wills records held at the city of Chester. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de Meluer, dated 1246, in the Assize Court Rolls of Lancashire, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Animo et prudentiâ
Motto translated: By courage and prudence


MILES
  This name is English but of Norman French origins. First introduced into England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, it is thought to derive from the Germanic personal name "Mild", meaning beloved, which itself possibly comes from the Slavic word "mil", meaning mercy. In English documents of the Middle Ages, the name normally appears in the Latin form "Milo", but the usual spoken form would have been "Mile", so the final "s" would represent the possessive or patronymic ending meaning "son of Mile".

Early examples of the surname recording include those of Ralph Miles in 1292. Given as being a fishmonger of Bridge Ward, it is said that he founded a charity in the name of the late Lord Milo, and subsequently adopted his masters name, whilst William Augustus Miles (1753 - 1817) was a notable political writer. He corresponded with William Pitt the Younger, and it is said suggested building a Suez Canal in 1791.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Nicholas Miles. This was dated 1177, in the Pipe Rolls of Sussex, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Sola virtus invicta
Motto translated: Virtue alone invincible


MILLER
  This surname is regarded as Anglo-Scottish. It is, or rather was, occupational and described a corn miller, or at least someone in charge of a mill. The origination is from the pre 7th century Old English word "mylene", and the later "milne", but ultimately from the Latin "molere", meaning to grind.

The name has numerous spellings, particularly in Scotland, including Millar, Millare, Myllair and Mylar.

Amongst the early recordings are Reginald Miller in the Subsidy Tax Rolls of Sussex in 1327, whilst in May 1635, James Miller, aged 18, was an early emigrant to the new states of America. He embarked from London on the ship "Plaine Joan" bound for Virginia. James Miller (1812 - 1864), born in Scotland, was the surgeon to Queen Victoria, and a notable bearer of the name.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ralph Muller. This was dated 1296, in the "Subsidy Tax Rolls of Sussex", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Mea spes est in Deo (English), Manent optima coelo (Scottish)
Motto translated: My hope is in God (English), The best things await us in heaven (Scottish)


MILLS
  The name Mills was brought to England in the wave of migration that followed the Norman Conquest of 1066. This name is a medieval English or Scottish topographical surname, given originally to someone who lived near a mill, and is derived from the Middle English "mille, milne", mill, a development of the Olde English pre 7th Century "mylen(e)", itself from the Latin "molina", a derivative of "molere", to grind. The final "s" indicates a patronymic, i.e., "son of".

The surname gradually came to be used as an occupational name for a worker at a mill, and indeed sometimes for the miller himself, a respected and important position in medieval communities, where the mill was a central part of the settlement

The modern surname can be found as Mill, Mills, Millis, Mille, Milne(s), Millman, Mylles, Meiles and Mullen.

One Richard Mille appeared in the Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire in 1279. An interesting namebearer was George Mills (1808 - 1881), a builder of iron steam ships who became a journalist and started the "Glasgow Advertiser and Shipping Gazette" in 1857.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard de la Melle which was dated 1200, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Sussex", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Among early North American immigrants bearing the name Mills or a variant listed above were: Cornelius Mill settled in Virginia in 1652; along with Edward in 1654; James in 1741; John in 1637; Lewis in 1642; Mary in 1704; Thomas in 1635; William in 1663. They also settled in the Barbados, Philadelphia, and Charlestown.

Motto: Honor virtutis pretium
Motto Translated: Honour is the reward of virtue


MONCRIEFF
  Moncrieff is an ancient Scottish surname. The name holders derive from three original families all living in Perthshire in the 14th century, and all holding lands in the barony of Moncrieff in the parish of Dunbarny. The meaning of the surname is uncertain, but may be derived from the Gaelic "Monadh Croibhe" which means the hill covered by trees, or the hill of the sacred bough, which may explain why an oak tree is featured on the clan crest.

Early examples of knights of the house of Moncrieff include John de Moncref, who in 1296 rendered homage to the Scottish government, whilst Sir Thomas de Moncref was taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Dunbar Castle in the same year.

The earliest known example of the surname recording is that of Matthew Moncrieff, circa 1230, in the charters of Perthshire, Scotland. Matthew Moncrieff obtained a charter from the Norman overlord Sir Roger de Mowbray of Yorkshire, for the lands of Moncrieff and Balconachin, and these lands were later created into a free barony by a charter from King Alexander II of Scotland in 1248.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Moncreiffe, Moncrieffe, Moncreif, Moncreiff, Moncreyfe and many more.

Some of the first settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: Hugh Moncreiff settled in Philadelphia in 1854; D. Moncreiff arrived in New York in 1820.

Motto: Sur esperance
Motto Translated: Upon hope


MONK
  This surname derives from the 7th century word "munuc", meaning a monk, or one who lived at a monastery. The name was originally occupational, describing a servant employed at a monastery, and it wasn't until much later that it assumed the religious meaning.

As a surname it was almost always a nickname for somebody who looked like a monk, or for one who led a solitary life given to good works, or to an actor who played the part of a monk in the pageants and travelling theatres of the Middle Ages. That it was a nickname, rather than a surname, is evident by the fact that monks were supposed to be celibate, and precluded by ecclesiastical law from marriage.

The name can be spelt as Monk, Monks, Monck, Monnick, Munck, or Munk. In Irish, the surname is anglicised as Minogue and Monaghan.

Early recordings of the name mention a Peter le Monek in the rolls known as "The writs of Parliament" for the years 1296 - 1300, and a Johannes Mounke in the Poll Tax records for Yorkshire in the year 1379. James Henry Monk (1789 - 1856) had the correct occupation because he became the bishop of Gloucester and Bristol in 1850, whilst William Henry Monk (1823-1889) was a noted composer and professor of music at King's College, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Aylric Munec, which was dated 1045 in the Anglo-Saxon Wills register, during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, 1042 - 1066.


MOODY
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is an example of that sizeable group of early surnames that were gradually created from the habitual use of nicknames. These were given in the first instance with reference to a variety of characteristics, such as a person's physical attributes or peculiarities, or their mental or moral qualities. In this case, the nickname is derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "modig", meaning brave or proud; a derivative of "mod", meaing spirit, mind, or courage. In Middle English this became "modie", with the developed meaning of impetuous, haughty, or angry.

The nickname would thus have been acquired by someone thought to be particularly courageous, arrogant or foolhardy, or one quickly moved to anger. In a few rare instances the name can also been seen to derive from the female personal name "Melodia". In these instances, the matronymic name has been passed down from the family

The modern surname can be found as Moody, Moodey, Moodie and Mudie, the latter two forms being found particularly in Scotland.

One Symon Moody was an early emigrant to the New World colonies, leaving London on the "Globe" in August 1635, bound for Virginia. An Edward Moody and a James Moody settled in Virginia in 1654 and 1663 respectively, while a David Moody emigrated to the Barbados in 1680.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alwine Modi, which was dated 1100, in "Old English Bynames", Devonshire, during the reign of William II, 1087 - 1100.

Motto: God with us


MORGAN
  This surname has a Gaelic-Celtic ancestry which pre-dates Christianity. Originally, the name was purely personal and spelt as "Morcant". In Welsh, this became "Morien" while in Medieval England it was changed to "Morgan".

The exact meaning is uncertain but "sea chief" or "sea defender" are the generally accepted interpretations. The importance of the name is shown by its incorporation in the ancient Welsh kingdom of Glamorgan, a corrupt form of "Ap Morgan" or the son of Morgan.

In Wales the first recording may be Thomas Morgaine, Knight of Monmouth, in 1538, whilst in Scotland, one John Morgane was a burgess of Glasgow in 1419. In Ireland the name is popular in Leinster and Ulster, and in some cases is an Anglicisation of Merrigan and Morahan, the first recording being that of Edward Morgane, of Dublin, on April 26th 1654. Not only does the name indicate a sea warrior, it is with the sea that the Morgan name has won most renown. Amongst these famous people was Sir Henry Morgan, Governor of Jamaica and the epitome of the privateering buccaneer of the 17th Century.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Morgan, which was dated 1214, in the "Curia Regis Rolls of Berkshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Audaces fortuna juvat (English), Y ddioddefws y orfu (Welsh)
Motto translated: Fortune favours the bold (English), He suffered to conquer (Welsh)


NEWBURY
  This name is recorded in various spellings including Newbery, Newbrey, Newbury, Newborough and Newburgh. As the last variations would suggest, this is a locational name after any of those places. The place names themselves are Anglo-Saxon and are derived from the Old English "neowe", meaning new, and the suffix "-burh", meaning a fortress or a town.

As examples Newbury in Berkshire, is recorded as "Neuberie", in the Domesday Book; Newburgh in the North Riding of Yorkshire and also in Lancashire, are recorded respectively as "Nou Burgo" in the Pipe Rolls of Yorkshire in 1199, and as "Neweburgh" in the Place Names list of Lancashire in 1431; whilst Newborough in Staffordshire, is recorded as "Neuboreg" in the Assize Court Rolls of that county in 1280.

A John de Newbury was recorded in Somerset, in 1327. Other recordings include that on January 8th 1599 of Avelin Newbury and George Holliers who were married at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and that on February 1st 1685, of Joseph Newberry of Exeter. He was on the list of convicted rebels bound for transportation to the Barbados after the Monmouth Rebellion of that year.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Henry de Neubury. This was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Buckinghamshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.


NEWMAN
  This surname is of Germanic and Anglo-Saxon pre 7th century origins. It was originally a pre-medieval nickname for somebody new to a particular place. The derivation is from the words "neowe, niew and nige", which all mean new, with the suffix "mann", meaning a friend or foreman.

The surname is widely recorded with Godwin Nieweman in the Pipe Rolls of Oxfordshire, England in 1169, and in Germany a Hermann Nyeman of Barth, in 1325. A similar English version is recorded as Robert le Nyman of Sussex in 1296.

John Henry Newman (1801 - 1890), who was formally created cardinal of St. George in Velabro in 1879, became a member of the Oxford Movement.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Stangrim Noueman. This was dated 1166, in the Pipe Rolls of Norfolk, during the reign of King Henry III, 1154 - 1189.

Many variations of the name Newman have been found, including Newmen and Newmin in England, with Neumann, Neuemann, Nuemann, and Nyemann in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.

Thomas Newman, aged fifteen, who left London on the ship "Plaine Joan" bound for Virginia in May 1635, was among the earliest recorded settlers in the new colonies of America. Other immigrants include: Alice Newman settled in Virginia in 1638; George Newman settled in Maine in 1630; Joe Newman settled in Virginia in 1635.

Motto: Ubi amor ibi fides
Motto Translated: Where there is love there is faith


OAKES
  This is an English topographical name and denotes someone living near a conspicuous oak tree or in, or nearby, an oak wood. The name is derived from the Old English "ac" and the Middle English "oke", both meaning "Oak (tree)".
Some modern-day bearers of the surname may well have derived it from any of the minor places named with the word "Oak" or "Oake", such as "Oake" in Somerset, or "Oaken" in Staffordshire. It is possible also that the surname has arisen from a nickname for someone who was very strong, as in "as strong as an Oak".

There are many variations of the name today including Oak, Oke, Okes, Oakker, and more. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Adam at the Ock, which was dated 1273, in the "Shropshire Hundred Rolls", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Quercus robur salus patria
Motto Translated: The strength of the oak is the safety of our country


O'DELL
  This uncommon name is of Anglo-Saxon origin and is a locational surname deriving from the place called Odell, or Woodhill, near the town of Bedford in Bedfordshire. The placename is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Wadehelle", showing its derivation from the Old English pre 7th Century "wad", or woad (a plant collected for the blue dye that could be obtained from its leaves), combined with "hyll", meaning hill.

The place is subsequently recorded in the Pipe Rolls of the county of 1163 and 1193, as "Wahella" and "Wahull", respectively, showing Norman influence. The first recording of the surname reflects this period of the spelling of the placename but other variations include Odell, Odehull, Wodehull and Wodhull.

After a century, the placename had reverted to the more Anglo-Saxon "Woodhull" (1276), and by 1494 was recorded as "Odyll". Early examples of the surname include: Simon de Wahull (1212, Kent); Walter de Wadhulle (1273, Bedfordshire); Robert de Wodhull (1314, Northamptonshire); and John Odyll or Odell (1545, Wiltshire). In London, the marriage of Thomas Odell and Susan Edwarde was recorded at All Hallows, Honey Lane, on September 10th 1557.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon de Wahella, which was dated 1195, in the "Pipe Rolls of Bedfordshire", during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.

Motto: Pro patria invictus
Motto translated: For my unconquered country


OLIVER
  The chronicles of the Oliver family show that the name was used in the Scottish/English Borderlands by the Strathclyde Britons. However it’s a surname that has Ancient Greek or Roman origins and has always been symbolically associated with the olive tree and in particular as an original baptismal name, the olive branch, the emblem of peace.

The name was popular throughout Europe in the pre Middle Ages, being borne as Oliverus by one of Emperor Charlemagne's knights, and a friend of Roland in the 9th century. The name as the baptismal "Oliverus" was recorded in the English Domesday Book of 1086.

Other very early examples of the surname include Jordanus Oliueri, in the Pipe Rolls of Cornwall, England, in 1206, whilst John Oliver appears in the charters of Soltre Hospital, Scotland in 1250. Perhaps the most interesting name holder was Lawrence Olivier (later Lord Olivier), 1906 - 1988, the world famous Shakespearean actor.

The first known recording as a surname in any spelling and in any country is that of Walter Olifer, a charter witness in Scotland in the year 1180.

Recorded in over one hundred spelling forms including Oliver, Olivier, and Olver (English and Scottish); Olive, Olivier, Ollivier (French); Oliva, Olivo, Oliverio, Livieri, Uliveri, Veiri, Vieri, Vieiro (Italy); and Olivas, Olivera (Spain & Portugal).

Among those emigrating to North America are: Evan Oliver who settled in Delaware with his wife Jean and seven children in 1682; Mary Oliver settled in Virginia in 1651; Nicholas Oliver settled in Virginia in 1638.

Motto: Sicut oliva virens lœtor in œde Dei
Motto Translated: As the flourishing olive, I rejoice in the house of God


PANTING
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, although also found in Scotland from the 13th century. It is a locational surname deriving from the place called "Panton" in Lincolnshire. The placename is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Pantone" and derives from the Old English pre 7th Century word "Pamp", related to the Old Scandinavian byname "Pampi" and describes a hillock or mound. It is used with "tun", meaning a settlement or village, to describe a village on the mound, unusual perhaps in the flat Lincolnshire landscape.

The modern surname has a number of variants, ranging from Panton and Pentin, to Pantin and Panting.

Examples of the surname recordings include Hugh de Paunton of Lanarkshire who rendered homage to King John of Scotland in 1296, and Alexander Pantone, Burgess of Aberdeen in 1464. English recordings include Pleasance Penton who married Richard Beamond at St Giles Cripplegate on December 11th 1654, William Peinton on December 20th 1690, and Thomas Pentin, christened at St Johns Horseleydowns, London on August 27th 1848. "Mrs Panton" was an early settler in the New World. She appears in the list of landowners in the parish of St. Michaels in Barbados in 1680.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh de Panton, which was dated 1273, in the "Lincolnshire Hundred Rolls", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Firmiius et pugnan
Motto translated: Firm in the struggle


PARKER
  This surname is English. Borne by the Earls of Morley and Macclesfield it is ultimately of French occupational origins. It described an official in charge of the extensive hunting parks of a king or wealthy landowner. The derivation is from the words "parchier" or "parquier", meaning park- keeper.

The surname was first recorded in England in the latter half of the 11th Century following the 1066 Norman Invasion, and as such was one of the very earliest surnames on record. Only five percent of the entries in the great Domesday Book of 1086 show people having surnames, and this is one of them. Amongst these very early recordings are examples such as Geoffrey Parchier, in the book of 'Seals' for the county of Northumberland, dated 1145, and Adam le Parker in the Hundred Rolls of the county of Norfolk for the year 1273. The surname was one of the very first into the new American colonies. William Parker, aged 20, who arrived in the ship Charles of London, in the year 1616, is shown in the records for January 23rd 1624 as being in the "muster" of Susan Bush, of "Elizabeth Cittie". Quite what his situation was is far from clear, as Susan Bush herself arrived in 1617, and was only aged 20!

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Anschetil Parcher, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book of the county of Somerset, during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Non fluctu nec flatu movetur
Motto translated: Moved by neither wind nor wave


PARRISH
  The name Parrish is of Anglo-Saxon origin and there are at least three possible sources for this early surname. The first is that it derives from the Saxon tribe called Parisii who originally lived beside the Humber river in Lincolnshire and who gave their names to places such as Paris, near Huddersfield, in West Yorkshire.

The second possible origin is that it may derive from the rare medieval given name Paris, which could be associated with the Trojan prince of the same name. This is ancient enough, but it has been traced back to an original Ulyrian personal name "Voltuparis" meaning "hawk".

Thirdly it may derive from the pre medieval word "parysche", the modern parish, and describe a religious division.

Parrish has been spelled many different ways, including Paris, Parish, Parris, Parrish, Pares and others.

Early examples of recordings include: Willemus de Parysch in the Poll Tax rolls for Yorkshire in the year 1379, and the christening of Winnifride Parrish on October 1st 1602, at the Holy Trinity in the Minories.

Perhaps the earliest recording of the surname is that of Lotyn de Paris of the county of Lincolnshire. He appears in the Hundred Rolls for the year 1273.

In the earliest registers of the New England colonies, Thomas Parrish was recorded as living in "Elizabeth Cittie, Virginiea", on February 16th 1623. Other Parrish’s to arrive in North America include: David Paris who settled in Barbados in 1774; Benjamin Paris settled in Maryland in 1774; Thomas Paris settled with his wife and son in Barbados in 1678.

Motto: Pares cum paribus
Motto translated: Like to like


PERRIN
  This is an English surname, although arguably of French and Greek origins. It derives from the male given name Perrin, itself a diminutive of "Perre" or "Pierre", the French forms of the Greek "Petros", meaning the rock. The name was extremely popular throughout Christian Europe in the Middle Ages, largely due to St. Peter, regarded as the founding father of the Christian Church, and Christ's pronouncement, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church".

The name has been recorded in various spellings including Parrin, Perin, Pering, Perrins, Perron, Perrun and others.

"Petrus", the Latinised form of the name, appears (without a surname) in the English Domesday Book of 1086, and Perrinus Uadletus was noted in the pipe rolls of the county of Northamptonshire in 1207. Early examples of the hereditary surname include Geoffrey Perrun of Lincolnshire in the Knight Templar (Crusader) rolls of the year 1185; Henry Piron of Oxfordshire in 1194; John Pirun of Wiltshire in 1255; and John Perin of Cambridgeshire in the Hundred Rolls of that county in 1273. Some bearers of the name may be of French Huguenot extraction, their ancestors having entered Britain as refugees fleeing religious persecution in their own county in the 16th and 17th Centuries. As an example of the many recordings we have Marin Perin, who was christened at the Threadneedle French Huguenot Church, in the city of London in 1639, whilst Michael Perring married Mary Spencer at St Mary's Tottenham, on October 1st 1702.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of John Pirun. This was dated 1166, in the Pipe Rolls of Gloucestershire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Impavidun feriunt ruinæ
Motto translated: Danger shall strike me unappalled


PHELPS
  This is a surname of Greek origins and is derived from the personal name of Ancient Greek origins "Philippos", a compound of the words "philein" meaning to love and "hippos", a horse; and hence "lover of horses". Philip of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, was the first famous bearer of the name, and its popularity throughout Greece and Asia Minor was largely due to him. The name was borne by five kings of France, including Philip I, who reigned from 1060 to 1108.

The name is recorded in over one hundred spelling forms from Phillipus, Philip, Phipps, Phelps, and apparently Pherps, to name a few.

It entered England via France in the 12th Century and appears as "Filippus" in the "Documents relating to the Danelaw", for Lincolnshire in the year 1142. Henry Phelipe was noted in the Hundred Rolls of Norfolk in 1273 and the patronymic form of the name also appears at this time, with the final "-s" being a reduced form of "son of". John Phippes is registered in the Calendar of Plea and Memoranda Rolls in 1364, and the Phipps family, the marquesses of Normandy and earls of Mulgrave, are descended from Constantine Phipps (1656 - 1723), Lord Chancellor of Ireland.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alicia Philippes, which was dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Huntingdonshire".

Motto: Toujours pret
Motto translated: Always ready


PHILIPS
  This name is found throughout Europe, from Spain to the Russian Steppes, and is of Ancient Greek origin. It derives from the word "philippos", a compound made up of two elements "philein", meaning to love, and "hippos", a horse, hence "lover of horses".

The name is particularly associated with Phillip of Macedonia who was the father of Alexander the Great.

Early examples of the surname recording taken from authentic early European registers include: Wernherus Philippi of Worms in Germany in 1274, and in England in the following year Henry Philip, in the famous charters known as 'The Hundred Rolls' for the county of Norfolk.

Motto: Ducit amor patriœ
Motto translated: Patriotism leads me


POINTON
  This surname has two possible origins.The first, and for the majority of nameholders, the most likely, is medieval English and locational from one of the places called Pointon or Poynton in Lincolnshire, Cheshire, and Shropshire. Dialectical differences in pronunciation and hence spelling, account for the great variety of English surnames. This is a good example of the genre. "Poynton" in Cheshire derives from the Old English pre 7th Century personal name "Pun(a)" plus "tun", a far off hamlet, whist "Poynton" in Shropshire translates as "Peofa's" tun.

These differences are also reflected in the various spellings of Pointon, Poynton, Painten, Pontin, Paynton, and Punton. Early examples of the surname recordings include Jordan de Poyngntun in the 1210 rolls of Lincoln, whilst Alice de Pynton is so recorded in the 1344 court of the London Pleas. Later recordings include examples such as Robert Pointon of Essex, recorded their in the rolls known as "Feet of Fines" in 1419, whilst in November 1562, Joan Paintayn was married to John Burton at Dronfield, in Derbyshire.

The second possible source, which has now interchanged with the native English, is from the Huguenot surname "Pantin", originally recorded at Aryon in France, and introduced into England at the end of the 17th Century. An early example being Freind Paintin, who was christened at the French Church, Threadneedle Street, London, in 1706.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alice de Poynton, which was dated 1344, in the "Calendar of Pleas" in the City of London, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Firmius et pugnan
Motto translated: More strongly into the fight


POMFRETT
  This very interesting location name is English and is a tease on the recognised pronunciation for the Yorkshire town of Pontefract, and from whence originates the famous "Pomfret Cakes" - a black liquorice sweet.

The place name and hence the surname derives from the Roman (Latin) words ponto fracto meaning "broken bridge.

Spelling variations of this name include Pomphray, Pomfrey, Pomfrett, Pomfret, Pomfray, Pomfritt, Pomphrett and others.

Commonly found in Yorkshire, other early recordings are those of William Puntfreit of Essex in 1191, and Robert Pumfret of Norfolk in 1273.

Some of the first North American settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: William Pomfrett settled in Maine in 1624; Thomas Pomfrett settled in the Barbados in 1685; William Pomfrey settled in Maryland in 1775; James Pomfrey settled in Maryland in 1730.

The earliest record was that of Thomas le Lange de Pontefracto. This was dated 1310, in the register of the "Freeman of York" during the reign of King Edward II, 1307 - 1327.

Motto: Hora è sempre
Motto translated: Now and always


POTTER
  This is an occupational surname for a maker of drinking and storage vessels, from the Old English pre 7th century word "pott", itself derived from the Latin "potus" meaning drink or draught. Job descriptive surnames originally denoted the actual occupation of the namebearer, and became hereditary when a son followed a father into the same business or profession.

In the Middle Ages the term "potter" covered workers in metal as well as earthenware and clay; the potter was sometimes a bell-founder.

The surname has been recorded in various spellings including Podder, Potter, Powter, and Powder, with early examples including Geoffrey Poter in the Curia Regis rolls of Leicestershire in 1196; John le Potier in the Pipe Rolls of Essex for 1197; and Lambert le Pottur in the Curia Regis rolls of Essex in 1214.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Seuard le Potter. This was dated 1172, in the transcripts of charters relating to the Gilbertine Houses, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189


POULTON
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is locational from any of the several places so called, for example Poulton in Cheshire, Gloucestershire, Kent and Lancashire. Recorded as "Poltune" in the Domesday Book of 1086 for the various counties, the name, in all cases, derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "pol", translating variously as a pool, a stream, or a deep place in a river, plus "tun", meaning a farm or settlement; hence, "settlement by a pool".

The name has variously been spelt as Poolton, Pulton, Pullton, Polton, Pouleton and many more.

Recordings from Kent Church Registers include: the marriage of Ellen Pulton and Thomas Jenckins on January 26th 1578, in Strood near Rochester; the marriage of Margaret Poulton and John Steele on February 1st 1636, at Sandback; and the christening of Judith, daughter of John Poulton, at St. Mary the Virgin, Dover, on March 11th 1693.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Henry de Pulton, which was dated 1327, in the "Exchequer Lay Subsidy Rolls of Somerset", during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.


PRANGLE
  This surname, recorded in English church registers under the variant spelling Pringley, is believed to be a late development of the Scottish locational name Pringle. The earlier form of this surname was Hoppringle or Hopringle from the old lands of that name near Stow in Roxburghshire, so called from the Old English pre 7th Century "hop", an enclosed valley, plus "(h)ringle", meaning a circular lake.

One Elys de Obrinkle of Edinburghshire, rendered homage in 1296, and a John Pryngel of Fife was noted in the "Chartulary of Saint Craiglatch" as having crown leases of Craiglateh during the period 1485-1490. The forms Prangle, Pringley and Prangley result from the pronunciation of "Pringle" as "Pring-le(e)".

In 1734, Peter Pringley and Sarah Tingley were married in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and on November 27th 1768, Mary Ann, daughter of Robert Prangle, was christened in St. Martin in the Fields, Westminster, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Sir Robert de Hoppryngil, witness to a gift, which was dated circa 1265, in the "Charters of the Hospital of Soltre", during the reign of Alexander III of Scotland, 1249 - 1286.

Motto: Sursum
Motto translated: Upwards


PRICE
  This ancient surname has two possible origins, from totally different and (literally) opposing sources. Those Price nameholders with a Welsh ancestry derive from a 14th century developed form of "ap Rhys" with the prefix "ap" meaning "son of", plus the given name "Rhys", meaning "fiery warrior". Perhaps not surprisingly Price is one of Wales most popular surnames, and no doubt this popularity was connected with the fact that Rhys was the given name of the last ruler of a fully independent kingdom of Wales, Rhys ap Tewder. He was killed in 1093 whilst unsuccessfully opposing the advancing Norman army of William the Conqueror.

The second origin for Price is job descriptive, and directly connected with the 1066 Norman Conquest. The derivation is from the Old French "pris", meaning literally "price" or "prize", and as such the word describes an early trading standards officer, or one who set the local prices for goods.

Early examples of the surname recordings taken from ancient rolls include Richard Prys, in the Feet of Fines of Essex in 1320, and Jorwerth ap Reys, in the London Pleas Records of 1393. He was a Welshman, who was appealing to the land tribunal over a disputed estate.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Price, which was dated 1297, in the "Minister's Accounts of the Earldom of Cornwall", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307

Motto: Vita brevis gloria aeterna
Motto translated: Life is short, glory eternal


PRIDAY
  This very interesting surname may be either of early medieval Welsh, or of English origin. As a Welsh surname Priday has two possible sources, the first being an occupational name for a bard, deriving from the Old Welsh "prydydd" or "predith", meaning poet or bard.

The second possibility is that Priday derives from the Celtic personal name "Predyr" or "Peredur", which was borne in Arthurian legend by one of the Knights of the Round Table - a name ultimately believed to have as its component elements in the Old Welsh "peri", or spears, and "dur", meaing hard or steel.

One Eynon Predith, bard of Elfael, was noted in the 1292 Subsidy Rolls of Wales, and Richard Pridie, Pryddie or Priddie, mentioned in Medieval Records of Tenby and Manorbier, Pembrokeshire, appears to be the same person as Rice Priditt of Dale (Pembrokeshire), also recorded in the above rolls.

As an English surname, Priday is location in origin, from the parish and village of Priddy, north-west of Wells in Somerset. Recorded as "Pridi" circa 1180, and as "Pridie" in the 1219 Feet of Fines for that county, the place was so called from a derivative of the Welsh "pridd", which means earth or soil.

On March 15th 1563, Alicia, daughter of Joannis Pridie, was christened in Wedmore, Somerset. A Pridy was also married in Quedgeley on November 16th, 1569.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Cadwgan Predith, bard of Glascwn, which was dated 1292, in "Early Medieval Records of Radnorshire", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 – 1307.

In the modern idiom the surname is variously spelt: Preedy, Pridd(e)y and Preddy.

Motto: Deus providebit
Motto Translated: God will provide


PROUDFOOT
  The name means "one who walks proudly" although the derivation is unclear.

Early settlers with this family name include John Proudfoot who settled in Virginia in 1774; Matthew Proudfoot who settled in New England in 1750; and Richard Proudfoot who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1808.

The earliest record of the name is Gilbert Proudfoot, a Sheriff in London in 1140, during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.


RADCLIFFE
  This surname is of pre 7th century English origins. It is a locational name from the various places in England such as the villages of Ratcliffe in the counties of Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, Radcliffe in Lancashire and Nottinghamshire, Redcliffe in Bristol and Warwickshire, Radclive in Buckinghamshire, and Rathclyffe and Rathcliffes in the county of Devon. The place name and hence the later surname, derives from the Old English word "read", meaning red, plus "clif" meaning a cliff or sometimes a riverbank.

The surname is recorded in the spellings of Radcliff, Radcliffe, Ratcliffe, Radclyffe, and Radecliffe, Ratliffe, and Ratliff.

Early examples of recordings taken from surviving rolls and registers of the medieval period include: William de Radeclive of Lancashire in 1272, and Willelmus de Radclif in the Poll Tax records of Yorkshire in 1379. Later examples include John Ratcliffe, the son of Anthony Ratcliffe, christened at the church of St. Bartholomew Exchange, in the city of London, in 1569, and James, the son of Thomas Radcliffe, christened at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on June 25th 1634.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter de Radeliva. This was dated 1182, in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Devonshire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Virtus propter se
Motto translated: Virtue for its own sake


RAMSAY
  Recorded mostly in the spellings of Ramsay and Ramsey, this surname is of both pre 8th century AD Anglo-Saxon and Scottish origins. In all spellings it is locational, either from places in Huntingdonshire and Essex, or from the lands of Ramsey in the parish of Whithorn, in the former county of Wigtown, Scotland.

The placename of Ramsay has two possible meanings, the first being the island where garlic, in Old English "harmsa", was grown or the fenced enclosure of the male sheep, rams. Strathclyde.

An alternative derivation is from the Norman Conquest and references the family's place of residence at the "Castle of Rames", at Bolbec in the arrondissement of Havre, France.

The name has various spellings apart from Ramsay and Ramsey, including Rames, Ramm, Rams and Rammes.

The first bearer of the name in Scotland was Simundus de Ramsia. He was a Norman baron from Huntingdonshire in England, who was a retainer of David, Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of King Alexander I of Scotland (1107 - 1124). Another family of the same name have possessed lands in North East Scotland in the direct male line since the 13th Century. These lands, near Banff, were granted in 1232, to Neis de Ramsey, who was physician to King Alexander II of Scotland. Not so fortunate was Sir William Ramsay who was apparently starved to death in Hermitage Castle in 1342. Somewhat later, in London, was the recording on February 19th 1567 of Anne Ramsay, the daughter of John Ramsay, christened at St. Leonard's church, in the city.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Aedelstanus de Ramesia, which was dated 1036, in register known as the "Olde English bynames list" for the county of Essex, in the reign of Harold I, 1035 - 1040.

Motto: Quid tibi vis fieri facias (English), Ora et labora (Scottish)
Motto translated: Do what you wish to be done to you (English), Pray and labour (Scottish)


RAVENHILL
  This is an English surname and has several possible origins. It may be locational and derive from a place called "Ravenshill" in the North Riding of Yorkshire or, alternatively, from "Revenel" in Normandy.

Confusion arises because the early Yorkshire records also refer to the ancient baptismal name "Ravenhilde". This is a development of the Norse-Viking pre 7th century "Hrafnildr", which has two elements; "Hrafn", meaning the raven, and "-ildr" which is probably a short form of "cild", meaning a child.

It has been recorded in various spellings including Ravenhall, Ravenell, Ravenall, and Ravenholl.

Examples of these recordings include Williemus fils Rauenilde in the 1297 Subsidy Rolls of Yorkshire and William Ravenhild in the Hundred Rolls of Yorkshire for the year 1276. The first name recording suggests that there may have been other places called "Ravenhill" which are now lost. Other recordings include Roger Ravenchil in the Feet of Fines rolls for King Richard 11 (1377 - 1399) and John Ravenell, whose daughter Anne Maria, was christened at the church of St Mary Aldermary, London in the year 1700.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Nycolas de Ravenhill, which was dated 1230, in the pipe rolls of the county of Hereford, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


RAWSON
  This is a surname of early medieval English origins. It is very good illustration of just how far spelling and pronunciation has moved since those early times. Developed from the Norse-Viking pre 10th century "Radulfr", which is itself the source of the French "Raoul" and the Norman "Radulf", these were often 'amalgamated' to form the personal names "Rafe" or "Ralph". These in turn created patronymics based around the original personal, and later surnames.

The Domesday Book of 1086 has several entries as Rauf, Rauphe, and Radulf, while the surname has been spelled variously as Rawsen, Rowson, Rawsone and others.

The abbey of Bury St Edmunds lists in its rolls a Raulfus Clericus, (Raulf, the clerk), in the year 1095. The early recordings of the surname include Richard Rawson, Johannes Raweson, and William Raufson, in the Yorkshire Poll tax rolls of 1379. Edmonde Rawson was recorded at St Michaels Cornhill, London, in 1570, and Reginald Rowson of Lymm, in Cheshire, is recorded in the Wills Register of Chester in 1611.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas Roulfisson, which was dated 1327, in the Subsidy Rolls of the county of Cambridge, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Laus virtutis actio
Motto translated: The praise of virtue is action


RICHINGS
  This is an English surname with at least three possible origins. Firstly, it may be Old French, and a nickname for a wealthy person from the pre 10th century "riche" meaning rich or wealthy; the term being introduced into England after the Norman Conquest of 1066.

Secondly, it may be a patronymic of the medieval given name "Rich". This is a short form of the personal name "Richard", of Old German origins, from the words "ric" meaning power and "hard" meaning strong. This name was found occasionally in Anglo-Saxon England, but was popularized by the Normans after 1066.

Thirdly, the surname could be residential and if so it derives from the Old English word "ric", meaning a stream or channel, as in the now "lost" village of Riche in Leicestershire.

Recorded in a number of spellings including Rich, Riche, Riches, Richens, Rinchin, Richins, Riching, Richings, Richey, Richez and others. Also see RICKETTS and RITCHIE below.

Early examples of recordings include Henry Richens in the tax register known as the "Feet of Fines" for Norfolk in the year 1373, and the marriage of William Ryches to Grace Tyffin at St. Mary Somerset, London, on June 30th 1588, and John Richins, at St Mary Whitechapel in the city of London, on October 8th 1606, and John Richings who married Elizabeth Ely at St Dunstans in the East, Stepney, on July 18th 1765.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Ryches. This was dated 1296, in the Tax Subsidy Rolls of Sussex, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.


RICKETTS
  This is an English medieval surname, as well as being the family name of Viscounts St Vincent. It is one which is usually derived from the pre 7th century Germanic and Anglo-Saxon personal name "Richard". See entry for RICHINGS above and RITCHIE below.

The name Richard was composed of the elements "ric", meaning power, and "hard", brave and strong. As a personal name Richard was well known in pre Conquest England, and in later times after 1066 it became identified with the struggle of the natives against the colonising Norman-French. Its popularity became widespread after the accession of King Richard I in 1189. He was closely identified, although probably wrongly, with the Anglo-Saxon movement.

Rickett or the patronymic Ricketts, may also derive from the ancient personal name "Richer". This is again of Germanic origins with "ric" as before, and "heri or hari", meaning an army. It was introduced into England by the Normans as "Richier".

Early examples of the recordings include Elizabeth Ricketts, who was christened at St. James' Clerkenwell, in the city of London in 1669. Interestingly a William Ricketts, also recorded seemingly incorrectly as Ricards, served at the conquest of Jamaica in 1665, and one of his sons founded the North American branch of the family. At the time of the War of Independence in 1776, family members served on both sides.

Motto: Quid verum alque decens
Motto translated: What is true and honourable


RIDLER
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is derived from the Old English "hriddel", meaning a sieve, and the Middle English "rid(e)len", which means to sift. This was probably an occupational name for a sifter of flour or meal, or was given to someone who sifted sand and lime in making mortar.

Recorded versions of the surname include Andrew le Rydelere in 1294 in Bedfordshire, in the "Court Rolls of the Abbey of Ramsey and the Honor of Clare". William Rydler married Dorothie Loyes on June 25th 1566 at St. James', Clerkenwell, London, and Christian Ridler married Thomas Kenton on September 21st 1628 at St. Olave's, Harte Street, London.

Other recordings include the marriage of John Ridler and Martha Harte on November 4th 1658 at St. Peter-le-Poer, London, while, Ann Riddler married William Swimbank on June 11th 1730 at St. Katherine by the Tower, London. A coat of arms was granted to a Ridler family at Edgeworth, Gloucestershire, and depicts, a red bull passant on a green mount in base, on a silver shield.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Geoffrey le Ridelere, which was dated 1230, in the "Pipe Rolls of Somerset", during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


RITCHIE
  This surname is of early medieval English and Scottish origin. It is a diminutive of Richard, the popular Germanic personal name composed of the elements "ric", meaning power, and "hard", meaning brave or strong. An 8th Century English kinglet of this name died at Lucca, in Italy, on his way to Rome and is still venerated there as St. Ricardo. But it was as "Ricard" that the name was used by the Normans and brought by them to England and Scotland after 1066. The surname as (Mac) Ritchie is mainly found in the Highlands, and more usually without "Mac" in Southern Scotland and the English border counties.

Recorded as MacRitchie, McRitchie, Riche, and Richie. See entries for RICHINGS and RICKETTS above.

Early examples include Duncan Richie, a kings messenger in Perth in 1505; John Riche who witnessed an instrument of sasine in Brechin in the same year; and Robert McRichie also known as Makryche, of Glenshee in 1571; whilst Duncan Riche was the king's sheriff of Inverness in 1512. William Ritchie founded the "Scotsman" newspaper in 1817, and Alexander Ritchie was an Edinburgh artist of repute in the early half of the last century.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Michael Rechy. This was dated 1350, in "Medieval Records of Inverness", Scotland, during the reign of King David II of Scotland, 1329 - 1371.

Motto: Virtute acquiritur honos
Motto translated: Honour is acquired by virtue


ROBB
  This name is English although it's more popular in Scotland particularly along the west coast. It comes from the diminutive form of the male given name Robert, itself coming from the old German, "Hrodebert", a compound of the elements "hrod", which means renown and "berht", meaning bright and famous. See ROBERTS below.

The name is occasionally found in England before the Norman Conquest of 1066, but in the main it was the Normans who introduced it to England. Rodbertus, Rotbert and Robert (without surname) are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 and one, Robe Coccus is mentioned in the 1196 Pipe Rolls of Wiltshire.

There are many variant spellings including Robe and Rabb(e), Robbie, MacRobbie and MacRobb.

Early recordings of the surname include Richard Robe, (Sussex, 1178), and Richard Robbe, (Somerset, 1212). Robb, and its variant forms, is also widespread in Scotland. One, Jok Robb, voter in Monkland, was noted in "a Rental Book of the Diocese of Glasgow" in 1519. Ellinn Robb, aged 27 yrs an early emigrant to the New World, settle in the Barbados in December 1635.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Richard Robbe, which was dated 1177, in the "Pipe Rolls of Sussex", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


ROBERTS
  This surname is of pre 7th Century German origin. It derives from the male given name "Hrodbeorht", a compound consisting of the elements "hrod", meaning renown, and "beorht", bright or famous. See ROBB above and ROBINS below.

This type of baptismal name, was very popular throughout Europe for many centuries, and has remained so today. Like the name Ro(d)ger, with which it shares a similar ancestry, it was adopted by the Norsemen as they swept through Northern Europe in the 10th century. As a result there are over seventy spellings forms including Robert, Robart, Robb, and Rupert, which is from the same root, to Luparti of Italy, Rubke and Ruppertz of Germany, Rops and Rubbens of Flanders, Roberts and Robertson of England and Scotland.

It was commonly adopted as a surname in Europe in the latter half of the 13th Century, and early recordings include: John Roberd, in the Hundred Rolls of Berkshire, dated 1279, Counrad Ruprecht of Eblingen, Germany, in 1282, and William Robert, in the Fines Court Rolls of the county of Essex, England, in 1292. Other recordings of the medieval period include Richard Roberdes, which was dated 1327, in the Subsidy Rolls of Worcestershire, England, Neyneke Robeken of Hannover, Germany, in 1359, and Eberlin Rubbart, of Stuttgart, Bavaria, in 1445.

The earliest known recording is Willelmus filius Roberti in the Domesday Book of 1086.

Motto: Deo adjuvante, fortuna sequatur
Motto translated: With God assisting, good fortune may follow


ROBINS
  Although now an English or French surname, it originates as a diminutive or nickname from the pre 6th century German name, Hrodebert, and it means "fame-bright".

The name has been recorded in several forms including Robin and the diminutives Robinet, Robinett, and Robinette; plus the more usual patronymics Robins, Robens, Robines, Robbings, and Robyns. Robin as a personal name came slightly later.

It was made popular in England by the 12th century Robin Goodfellow, otherwise known as Puck, whose mischievous tricks are described in Shakespeare's "Midsummer Night's Dream", as well as the famous tales of Robin Hood, who (allegedly) stole from the rich to give to the poor.

Amongst the recordings of the name in the surving registers of the diocese of Greater London are the marriage of John Robins and Anna Clarcke at the church of St. Martin Orgar, city of London, on January 25th 1544, the marriage of Thomas Robinnett to Cissely Wingfield at St Katherine by the Tower (of London) on July 12th 1616, and the marriage of Allen Robinette to Margaret Symm apparently by civil licence in London, on September 29th 1653. This was during the short "reign" of Oliver Cromwell (1652 - 1658).

The surname is first recorded in the latter half of the 13th century with that of Margaret Robines in the Hundred Rolls of Cambridgeshire in 1279.

Motto: Deus nobis quis contra?
Motto translated: God for us, who shall be against us?


ROWLES
  This surname is a patronymic form of the male given name "Rollo", itself a Latinised form of the Norman "Roul", equivalent to the Middle English personal name Rolf. The ultimate origin lies in the Germanic "Hrolf"; a compound of the elements "hrod", meaning renown, plus "wulf", or wolf.

The surname seems to have reached England by two separate channels; partly through it's popularity among the Normans, and partly through its use among Scandinavian invaders. A link to Normandy exists in the placename of "Roullours", in Calvados, in the arrondissement of Dieppe, France.

There are a number of variant spellings including Rolls, Rolston, Rollesby, Rholes and Rolles.

Early recordings include Robert Role (1279) "The Hundred Rolls of Bedfordshire", and Matilda Rolles (1279) "The Hundred Rolls of Huntingdonshire". John Rowles married Agnet Fetherstone on November 13th 1541, at St. Stephen's, London, and Mary, daughter of James Rowles was christened at St. Andrew's, Holborn on April 4th 1575. One Henrie Rowles, an emigrant, sailed aboard the "Amitie" bound for Barbados on October 13th 1635.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Chieneive, which was dated 1130, in the "Pipe Rolls of Hampshire", during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: Celeritas et veritas
Motto translated: Promptitude and truth


RUSSELL
  This is one of the most famous and noble names in British history since the Conquest of 1066, when it was a Norman introduction. The name is a diminutive patronymic and means "the son of Red", from the Old French "Rous", red, a nickname for someone with red hair, and "-el", little.

This Old French is, in turn, derived from Roussel, Normandy, the family's place of residence prior to the Norman Conquest.

In the National Biography there are over sixty entries for Russell, the Dukes of Bedford being Russells, while Charles Russell 1832 - 1900, the Lord Chief Justice of England was Baron Russell of Killowen. The third Earl Russell is better known as the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872 - 1970).

In the modern idiom, the name has a number of spelling variations: Russel, Russell, Russill, Rousel(l) and Roussel(l).

In the 1327 Subsidy Roll of Gloucestershire, the name Russel is found in Tewkesbury and Willersey, while a Russell family was also living in Withington at this time. A Robert Russell lived at Eycot Manor, Rendcomb, Stroud in the late 12th Century and the ownership was passed to his son, William, in 1209.

On January 2nd 1634, one John Russell, aged 19 yrs., embarked from London on the ship "Bonaventure" bound for "Virginea"; he was one of the earliest recorded name bearers to enter America. Others include: Joe Russell settled in Virginia in 1635; John Russell settled in Virginia in 1623; Simon Russell settled in Boston in 1631; William and Walter Russell settled in Virginia in 1607.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Rousel, which was dated 1115, in the "Winton Rolls of Hampshire", during the reign of King Henry I, 1100 - 1135.

Motto: Che sarà sarà
Motto Translated: What will be will be.


RUSSELL-WAIMOTU
  See RUSSELL above and WAIMOTU below


RYDER
  This unusual name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and has two possible meanings. The first of these is from the late Old English pre 7th Century term "ridere", a derivative of "ridan", to ride, and is an occupational surname given originally to a mounted warrior or a messenger. After the Norman Conquest of 1066 however, and the introduction of their feudal system, the term "Rider" or "Ryder" was soon displaced by by the use of "Knight" to describe a tenant bound to serve his lord as a mounted soldier.

The second possible origin of the modern surname is from the Old English "ried, ryd", meaning a clearing in a wood, used with the suffix "-er" as a topographical name denoting residence in or by such a clearing.

The modern surname can be found recorded as Rider, Ryder and Ridder.

The marriage of John Ryder and Mary Wales was recorded at St. Nicholas', Cole Abbey, London, in January 1593.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Thomas le Rider, which was dated 1204, witness in the "Assize Court Rolls of Yorkshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Dum cresco spero
Motto translated: While I increase I hope


SALMON
  This name is of early medieval English origin, and derives from the Middle English and Old French given name "Salmon" or "Saumon", a contracted form of Salomon. The ultimate origin of the personal name is from the Hebrew male given name "Shelomo", a derivative of "shalom", peace.

Salomon and its variant forms was a popular given name among Christians and Jews during the Middle Ages; it is recorded as "Salomon" in the Domesday Book of 1086, and one "Salamon clericus" is recorded in Suffolk in 1121.

Salomon was the usual medieval form, used in the Vulgate Bible, while Solomon is the form used in the Geneva Bible and the Authorized Version. In England the surname may also have developed from use as a nickname for a man thought to be unusually wise, and for someone who had played the part of King Solomon in a miracle play.

The modern English surname has many variants, ranging from Salamon, Salaman and Salomon to Salmon, Salman and Salmen.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Salmon, which was dated 1210, in the "Curia Rolls of Bedfordshire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Optima sapientia probitas
Motto translated: Probity is the best wisdom


SCOTFORD
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational surname deriving from the place called "Scotforth" in Lancashire, near Lancaster. The placename is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Scozforde", and in the Feet of Fines for Lancashire of 1204 as "Scoteford". The name means "ford of the Scot or Scots", derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "Scott", which in early Old English meant an Irishman, but was later applied to the Gaels in Scotland exclusively.

Interestingly, the place "Scotforth" is close to 'Galgate' in Lancashire, which is named from an ancient road running north past Kendal, and means 'the Galway road', apparently referring to the road having been used by cattle drovers from Galway in Ireland. The "gate" element of the name is the Old Scandinavian "gata", road.

The modern surname from "Scotforth" has a number of variant forms; Scotchforth, Scotford, Scotchford and Scotfurth.

The marriage of Katherine Scotchford and John Sharow was recorded in London in 1614.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William de Scotford, which was dated 1212, in the Fees Court Records of Lancashire, during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.


SCRIVENS
  This name is medieval English but of French origins. Probably introduced into England after the Norman Invasion of 1066, it was the occupational name for a scribe or one responsible for the copying of books and manuscripts. The derivation of the name is from the Old French word "escrivein", itself from the Latin "scribere", meaning to write.

In the modern idiom the surname spellings include Scriven, Scrivens, Scrivener, Scrivenor, Scriver, Scrivinor and Scrivner.

Early examples of the surname recording taken from surviving church registers include the marriage between John Scrivener and Jone Fallis on the 12th of November 1570, at the church of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury, in the city of London, whilst Fredrick Henry Ambrose Scrivener (1813 - 1891) followed a distinguished career as a religious divine. He obtained his degree at the university of St. Andrews, Scotland in 1872, and assisted in the revision of the New Testament (1870 - 1882).

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Simon Scrivine. This was dated 1218, in the early charters of St. Paul's cathedral, in the city of London, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


SCUDAMORE
  Usually recorded as Scudamore and Skidmore, this is a medieval locational surname. It originates from a now 'lost' medieval village called Scudamore, believed to have been situated in the county of Somerset.

The derivation of the place name possibly comes from the Old English word "scitemor" meaning one who lived at the moor. If so it might explain why it disappeared probably in the 16th century when a whole area of Somerset known as The Wetlands, was drained. Locational surnames were usually given either to the local lord of the manor and his, or sometimes her, descendants, or to former inhabitants who had moved to another area, and were best identified by the name of their birthplace.

The Scudamore family trace their descent from Ralph, who in 1086 resided at Upton in Wiltshire, whilst Walter de Scudamore was lord of Upton, in the reign of King Stephen. Skidmore was an early variant of the name with Peter de Skidemore being recorded in the Great Chartulary of Glastonbury, Somerset, in 1170.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh de Scudimore. This was dated 1167, in the Pipe Rolls of Herefordshire, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Scuto amoris divini
Motto translated: By the shield of God's love


SELMAN
  This is an unusual name which is derived from two possible sources. The first is a medieval nickname for a happy, cheerful and fortunate man. The derivation is from the Middle English "seely", meaning happy, or fortunate from the Old English "saelig" and happiness, or good fortune, from the Old English "sael".

The second possible origin for the modern surname is from an occupational name for a servant employed by someone called "Seal" or "Sealey"; both medieval personal names from the word "sael", happy, as above.

There are a great many variants of the modern surname, from Selman, Silman, Silmon and Sellman to Silliman, and Selliman. The name development has included Thomas Selman (1275, Worcestershire) and Henry Silmon (1327, Wiltshire). Among the recordings in London are the marriages of John Selman and Maud Hooper on May 18th 1610 at St. Gregory by St. Paul, and of Honorus Selman and Elizabeth Bradshaw on February 13th 1699 at St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailricius Seliman, which was dated 1169, in the Northamptonshire Pipe Rolls, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


SHIPTON
  This is a locational English surname. It derives from one of several English villages, or even solitary farms, which have nothing whatsoever to do with ships. The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th century "scéap", meaning sheep, and "tún", meaning a town or settlement. The settlement name is first recorded as early as 714 AD in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, a clear indication of the importance of sheep farming in the early economy.

The famous Victorian etymologist Canon C. W. Bardsley gives the year 1273 as the first known date of the surname recording, and this is probably so. It is almost certainly about the date when surnames became hereditary, although locational surnames, those named after specific places, were the first to be recognised as family or 'sire' names. The name has been spelled as Shiptone, Shippton, Shipptone, and other varations.

In this case early recordings include Simon de Shupton, whose occupation was given as "firmarius", an early lawyer, one who confirmed land charters and the like, in the Poll Tax rolls of Yorkshire in 1379, whilst Edward Shipton of London was a student at Oxford University in the year 1500.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Baldwin de Schipton, which was dated 1273, in the Hundred Rolls of the county of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.


SLADE
  The Slade surname is apparently of topographical origin, and as such derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "slaed" - a valley.

However a second explanation is that a "slade" in the South of England may also refer to a strip of agricultural land in woodland, whilst a person working or living at such a place would have been a "slader". The following rhyme appears in the early stories of Robin Hood – "It had been better of William a' Trent, to have been abed with sorrowe, than to be that day in the greenwood slade, and to meet with Little John's arrowe".

It has also been suggested that the name may, in some instances, be of location origin from "Slade" or "Slad" villages in Devonshire, Somerset, or Gloucestershire.

Early examples of the surname include Reginald atte Slade, registered in the charter rolls of Middlesex for the year 1306, whilst Walter in the Slade appears in the Suffolk rolls of 1327. Later church recordings taken at random include Joan Slader, who married Thomas Mitchell at St Clements church, Hastings, on December 3rd 1570, whilst on October 3rd 1574, Roger Slade married Joyse Lapyngton, at St. Margaret's, Westminster.

Other recordings include Alice Slade, who married Thomas Kynnaston on November 23rd 1579 at St. Peter's, Cornhill, and Philadelphia Slader, who married Edward Salmon at St Gregory's by St Pauls, London, on May 23rd 1606.

An investigation of the immigration and passenger lists has revealed a number of people bearing the name Slade who migrated to America: George Slade who settled in Virginia in 1654; William Slade settled in the Barbados in 1660; Edward Slade settled in Virginia in 1670; Mathew Slader settled in the Barbados in 1670.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Sabern de la Slade, which was dated 1255, who was a witness at the assize court of Essex, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Motto: Fidus et audax
Motto Translated: Faithful and bold


SMITH
  This is the most popular surname in the English speaking world by a considerable margin. Of pre 7th century Anglo-Saxon origins, it derives from the word "smitan" meaning "to smite" and as such is believed to have described not a worker in iron, but a soldier, or one who smote. That he also probably wore armour, which he would have been required to repair, may have lead to the secondary meaning.

The famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicles sometimes known as the first newspaper, in the 9th century AD uses the expression "War-Smith" to describe a valiant warrior, whilst the later medieval Guild List of specialist trades has blacksmith, whitesmith, tinsmith, goldsmith and silversmith amongst its many members, but no single trade of "smith". These descriptions of the skilled workers of the Middle Ages were exact, and it is thought that the original Smiths were probably the guards of the local lord of the manor. This would account for the singular popularity of the name, as the early social records indicate that the trades of tailor and baker were much more prevalent than that of Smith in any form.

The great family name of Smith occurs in all major cities of the English speaking world, yet curiously the greatest concentration of Smith's are in Aberdeenshire, Scotland! Why this should be so is far from clear.

Recorded in the spellings of Smith, Smithe, Smythe, and the patronymics Smiths, and Smithson. The name is also popular in Germany as Schmidt, Schmid, Schmeid, and Schmitz. In Holland it is recorded as Smitts, Smut, Smites, van Smutts, van Schmidt and many more.

Not surprisingly the Smith name was one of the very first into the New American colonies, being held by the famous John Smith (1580 - 1631), explorer and writer, who helped to found the state of Virginia. He was reputedly saved from execution by Pocahontas, the Indian chief's daughter, who died in England in 1622.

The first recorded spelling of the family name, and probably the first surname recorded anywhere in the world, is that of Eceard Smid. This was dated 975 AD, in the English Surname Register for County Durham, during the reign of King Edward the Martyr of England, 975 - 979 AD.

Motto: Semper fidelis
Motto translated: Always faithful


SNAPE
  This surname may be either of Anglo-Saxon or of Old Norse origin. If the former, the name is locational from the parish and village of Snape, south of Saxmundham in East Suffolk. Recorded as "Snapes" in the Domesday Book of 1086, the place was so called from the Old English pre 7th Century "snaep", meaning scanty grassland, or a poor piece of grazing land.

In Sussex, the dialectal term "snape" is still used of boggy, uncultivated land, and Snape, a minor place south west of Wadhurst in Sussex, was probably named from this source. The name may, of course, also be topographical from residence by a poor piece of land as the following early recordings show: Henry de la Snape and John atte Snape (Sussex, 1273 and 1327, respectively).

The surname may also be of northern English origin, and locational from Snape in Lancashire and Yorkshire, so called from the Old Norse "snap", with a similar meaning to "snaep" above.

Different spellings recorded for this name include Snappe, Snepe, Snapes and others.

In 1526, one James Snape was noted in the "Court Book of the Barony of Carnwath", Lanarkshire, Scotland.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Agnes del Snape, which was dated 1242, in the "Chartulary of the Monastery of Ramsey", Huntingdonshire, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


SPIERS
  This is a patronymic name, i.e. "son of Speir", itself an official title for a watchman deriving from the Medieval English "espein" or the Olde French "espier" meaning "to watch or observe".

Spelling variations include Spires, Speyer, Speery, Speers, Speer, Spire and many more.

One William le Spiour is recorded in the 1302 "Accounts of the Chamberlains of the County of Chester" and a Robert Spyer in the 1379 Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire. However the recording of the name is Scotland is earlier. In 1475 one David Spere was burgess of Glasgow and in the following year an Alexander Speir was recorded in Pettincrefe. The patronymic form of the name, Speirs is recorded in 1679, the final "s" being a reduced form of "son of ". In March 14th 1761 the marriage of William Spiers and Isabell Thomson took place at Falkirk, Stirling and on April 17th 1796 a John Spiers was christened at Campsie, Stirlingshire.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Willelmus Sper, a witness in Perth which was dated 1232, (Records of the Holy Trinity Monastery at Scone) during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland, 1214 - 1249.

Motto: Salvet me Deus
Motto translated: May God help me


STAKES
  The Old English word "stoc" meaning a place, has given birth to many surnames. These include Stock, Stoke, Stoak, and Stook, although in fact their plural forms are the usual spelling. Quite why the plurality developed is generally accepted as being dialectal, it being easier in pronunciation to add the final 's'. The confusion is further heightened by the fact that the earliest plural spellings often pre-date the base form, although again this is probably owing to a lack of recordings. The name can also be derived from Stock, near Caen, and can describe followers of King William I who came to England as part of the Norman Conquest.

In this case we have one of the earliest of all surnames, and these examples include Cnut de Stoch in the 1166 Derbyshire Pipe Rolls, William atte Stokkes in the 1310 Hertfordshire Rolls, and Rose atte Stock of Essex in 1315. As a place name 'Stoke' is found widely in Devon, Somerset, Derbyshire, etc., as well as Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire.

One of the earliest recorded Barons was William Stoc, who appears in the Knight Templar (Crusader) Rolls for Warwickshire in 1185. The later post-medieval spellings include Thomas Stookes who married Alse Feild at St Brides Church, Fleet Street, London, on May 17th 1590, and William Stooke, the father of Deborah Stooke, a witness at her christening of March 4th 1653.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ricerus de Stokas, which was dated 1084, The Geld Roll (Domesday Book) for Somerset in 1084, during the reign of King William the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Fortis qui insons
Motto translated: Innocent fortune


STEPHENS
  This medieval surname is a patronymic form of the given name Stephen or Steven. These in turn derive from the pre Christian Ancient Greek word "stephanos", meaning "crown". Stephen was a popular first name in the Middle Ages although, prior to the Norman Invasion of 1066, it was used only by monks. It was also the name of the first Christian martyr.

It is recorded in the famous Domesday Book of 1086 in the Latinised form of "Stefanus". Other English spellings include Stevenson, Stephinson, Stevenston, Stenson, and others. The addition of the patrynomic "s" denotes a son.

Early examples of the surname recording include Alice Stevens, also spelt as Stephenes, who was recorded in the Hundred Rolls of the county of Huntingdonshire in 1279, whilst in the following century John Stephenson was a Freeman of York in 1395. George Stephenson (1781 - 1848) is perhaps the most notable bearer of the name, famous for his development of the railway engine, "The Rocket", and for being known as the founder of the railways.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Adam Stevenson which was dated 1327, in the "Subsidy Rolls" of the county of Essex, during the reign of King Edward III, 1327 - 1377.

Motto: Sub libertate quietum
Motto translated: Rest under liberty


STOODLEY
  This is a locational surname, which may derive from one of the several places called Studley, but is almost certainly from Stoodleigh, near Tiverton, in Devon. It is possible that some nameholders, although very few, may derive from the village of Stoodley Pike, near Todmorden, formerly in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

However, whether derived from Studley, Stoodleigh, or Stoodley, the name translation is the same being 'the horse stud farm' from the Old English pre 7th century "stod leah".

By the end of the 13th century, the name was widespread in England with a number of spelling variations including Studley, Stodledge, Stoodlege and many more.

Early examples included William de Stodley of Leicester in 1273, and Thomas de Studle of Bedford in 1293. Slightly later recordings included Thomas Stoodlie of Dorset in 1584, and John Stodlie who married Agnes Hillaire at Stoke Abbot on May 25th 1594. In Yorkshire John Stoodley of Skipwith, East Riding, is recorded on June 20th 1675, and an unfortunate Stoodley, was John Stoodley of Trent, Dorset, who was a Monmouth Rebel, and as such was sent to Barbados under a sentence of 10 years hard labour on October 28th 1685.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter de Stodleghe, which was dated 1272, in the "Pipe Rolls" of the county of Somerset, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272-1307.


SUMMERS
  This ancient surname derives from the Old French "somier" meaning a "sumpter", a term describing one who drove pack horses or mules. The name is first recorded in Scotland towards the end of the 12th Century, but in fact is equally at home in England, being an introduction by the Normans after 1066.

The name, in its many forms is widespread throughout the United Kingdom and these spellings include Symmers, Symers, Simmers, and Somers as well as Sumer, Sumers, Sunter, Sumpter and Summers.

Amongst the early recordings of the name are William Le Sumeter in the Assize Rolls of Worcester for 1221, whilst in 1327 William Somyr was granted an annual rent for life by King David 11 of Scotland. Other examples include Adam Sumer of Essex, in 1223, with William Somer appearing in the Worcestershire Pipe Rolls of 1275, and John Somerys in the 1377 Subsidy Rolls of Somerset.

The Bermuda Islands were originally called "The Somer Islands" after Sir George Somer. Sir George also held a special license from King James 1 of England and V1 of Scotland (1867 - 1625) to (quote) "make habitation anbd plantation of people in that part of America called Virginea". John Sumers of St Johns parish, Barbados, was an early land owner on that island. His servant was John Vinicott, a "Monmouth" rebel, sentenced to ten years exile by the dreaded Judge Jefferies in 1685.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Sumer (witnessed a grant to Soltre Hospital), which was dated circa 1180, in "Charters of the Hospital of Soltre", Edinburgh, Scotland, during the reign of King William "The Lion" of Scotland, 1165 - 1214.

Motto: Tandem tranquillus
Motto translated: At last tranquil


SUTTON
  Sutton is a name that came to England in the 11th century wave of migration that was set off by the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Sutton family lived in Somerset, at Sutton Montague where they were descended from Dreu de Montaigu.

It is an English location name from any of the places so called, widespread in England; for example, Sutton in Bedfordshire, which appears as "Sudtone" in the Domesday Book of 1086. These place names derive from the Old English pre 7th Century elements "suth", south and "tun", an enclosure or village, a common place name element in England. Hence, the name means "the settlement of a main village".

An Alnod Suttuna was recorded in 1086 in Cambridgeshire in Ancient Records of Ely and the surname appears a number of times in the 1379 Poll Tax Records of Yorkshire as "de Sutton", the "de" prefix meaning "of".

Interesting name bearers include Oliver Sutton (deceased 1299) bishop of Lincoln, 1280 - 1299, who joined Archbishop Winchelsey in resisting the taxation imposed by Edward 1 in 1296; Thomas Sutton (1532 - 1611) founder of the Charterhouse, London, who was thought to be the richest commoner in England; & Robert Sutton (1594 - 1668) first Baron Lexington, who fought on the side of Charles I.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ketel de Sudtone, which was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book of Lincolnshire, during the reign of King William the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087.

The variations of the name Sutton include Sutton, Suton, Suttone and others.

Some of the first immigrants to cross the Atlantic carried the name Sutton, or a variant listed above: Ambrose Sutton who settled in Charlestown Mass. in 1640; Annis Sutton settled in Virginia in 1639; Dorothy Sutton settled in the Barbados in 1679; Daniell Sutton settled in Pennsylvania in 1683.

Motto: Pour y parvenir
Motto Translated: To accomplish it.


SWANWICK
  This name is locational and apparently has nothing directly to do with the water bird known as the swan. It originates from the two villages called Swanwick, one in Hampshire and the other in Derbyshire. Both are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 in the spelling form of "Swanwyck". The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th century word "swan", which in this context, translates as "tenant", with the suffix of "wic", meaning a dairy farm.

Similar place name examples are Gatwick, meaning the goat farm, and Chiswick, the cheese farm. Habitational names, such as Swanwick, were usually given to a person after they left their original village, as an easy form of identification. The reasons for leaving were varied, however it is known that Derbyshire was badly effected by the Bubonic Plague of 1665, with the modern surname becoming widely spread after that date.

Recorded in several spellings including Swanwick, Swanick, Swancock, Swank, Swancott and Swannick.

Examples of the surname recording include: Hugh Swanwick of Swanwick, and presumably the lord of the manor, in the Chester Wills Register for 1619, whilst in 1668, John Swanwick married Mary Winspeare at Canterbury, Kent. In 1711, Hannah Swannick married Thomas Parish at the church of St. Mary Aldermary, in the city of London.


TANNER
  This is an ancient Anglo-Saxon occupational surname for someone employed as a tanner of animal skins and hides. This was an important skill in medieval times when leather was used in the manufacture of everyday items such as buckets, shoes and clothes, and of course harness, saddlery and armour for the men at arms and knights.

The English derivation of the name is from the Old English pre 7th Century "tannere", from the Late Latin "tannarius", which was reinforced by the Old French verb "taneor", introduced by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066. The ultimate derivation is thought to be from an ancient Celtic word for the oak tree, whose bark was used in the tanning process.

The surname development includes Lemmer le Tannur (1175, Yorkshire), and Philip le Tannour (1273, Huntingdonshire). One Daniell Tanner was an early settler in America; he is listed as one of those living in "Elizabeth City" in Virginia, in February 1623.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Henry Taneur, which was dated 1166, in the "Pipe Rolls of Norfolk", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.


TAYLOR
  This is an English surname but of French origins. It derives from the word "tailleur", meaning "a cutter-out of cloth", and was adopted from the medieval job description after the 12th century.

It would seem that tradition dictates that the spelling as tailor refers to the trade of tailoring, whilst Taylor is the surname, but this is arguable. What is certain is that the surname is extremely popular, and in England it ranks second only to Smith in the surnames listing. Over the centuries the number of Taylor’s has been swollen by the adoption of various equivalent continental names such as Schneider, Szabo, and Portnov, all of which entered Britain mainly as refugee names.

Early examples of the surname taken from surviving rolls and registers of the medieval period include: William le Taillur in the Pipe Rolls of the county of Somerset in 1182, and Roger le Taylur in the Hundred Rolls of Lincolnshire in 1273.

Among the many Taylors recorded in history are Zackary Taylor (1784 - 1850), the 12th president of the Unites States. He was a famous soldier who played a large part in the independence of Texas from Mexico, whilst Jane Taylor (1783 - 1824), was a famous children’s author whose works included the poem "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star".

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Walter Taylur. This was dated 1180, in the records of Canterbury Cathedral, during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Taylor, Taylour, Taylur, Tailler, Taillefer, Tayler, Tailour and many more.

Some of the first American settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: Achsah Taylor, who arrived in Salem, Massachusetts in 1630; James Taylor, who emigrated from Dumfries to Virginia in the 1600's; Abraham Taylor, who settled in Virginia in 1664.

Motto: Consequitur quodcunque petit
Motto translated: He hits whatever he aims at


TERRETT
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a topographical name for someone living on the banks of the River Tarrant in Dorset. The river name was first recorded as "Terrente" in 935, and as "Tarente" in 1253. There are a number of interpretations of the river name, which derives from the same source as the River Trent. The name may be composed of the elements "tri", meaning through or across, and "sant", which means to travel or journey.

The name has various spellings including Tarrent, Tarant, and Tarrant. The variation of Tarrant is probably also locational, from any of the eight or so villages, situated along the River Tarrant, called Tarrant-Monkton, Tarrant-Rawston, etc.

One Ralph Taraunt was recorded in Sussex in 1296. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Reginald de Tarenta, which was dated 1190, in "Documents of the Danelaw", Lincolnshire, during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.


THORLEY
  This name is of English locational origin from a place thus called in Lancashire, and also in Hertfordshire (near Bishops Stortford), and on the Isle of Wight. The name derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "porn" meaning thorn(bush), plus "leah", a wood. Hence, "a thorny leah".

The name has a number of spelling variations including Thawley, Thorleigh, Thurley, Thurleigh and others.

The marriage of Thomas Thorneley and a Johanna Longe appears in London Marriage Licence Records, dated 1588. The prevalence of the name in Derbyshire Church Registers from the late 16th Century onwards leads one to believe that the name may be topographic from that area, perhaps from a "lost" village. On October 31st 1591, the marriage of one, Alice Thornley and a Francis Callow appears on Chesterfield registers and in November 1604 a Henrici Thornley or Thornelye was christened in Bolsover.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Thornelie, of Cheshire, which was dated 1581, The Oxford University Register, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603.

Motto: Fide et Fiducia
Motto translated: By fidelity and confidence


TRANTER
  This surname was introduced into England by the 12th century Crusaders. It derives from the latin "Travetarius" and describes a merchant or early transport contractor - one who travelled. The development of the surname, including the later intrusive "n", would seem to be a consequence of the introduction of Middle English and the suppression of Latin and French from the early 13th century.

Amongst the very early recordings are those of Philip Trenter of Essex in 1221, Hugo Le Traunter, also of Essex in 1292, and Simon Le Traunter of Warwick in 1332. A short form of the name is Trant(e), and one Richard Trant was recorded as a land owner in Barbados in 1680. Other later recordings include James Trantor of London, who married Catherine Weathers at the famous church of St Katharines by the Tower, on December 27th 1699, in the reign of William of Orange. (1694 - 1702).

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Terri Travetarius which was dated 1148, in the Winton Rolls of Hampshire, during the reign of King Stephen, 1135 - 1154.

Motto: Augeo
Motto translated: I increase


TRIGG
  This surname is of Old Scandinavian origin, and is from the Old Norse byname "Triggr", which means trustworthy, faithful. This name is similar to the English name "Trow", which is from a nickname for a trustworthy person, derived from the Middle English "trow(e)" or "trew(e)", meaning faithful or steadfast, from the Old English pre 7th Century "treowe".

The name was probably introduced into England by the Scandinavians in the 7th and 8th Centuries and variations include Trygge, Trick, Trygm and Trig.

The personal name was first recorded as "Trig" in the Records of the Templars in England in the 12th Century at Yorkshire in 1185.

Other records include the following: William Trigges (1279, Cambridgeshire) and Ralph Trigge (1332, Lancashire). The modern surname can be found as Trigg and Trigge, with Triggs being a patronymic. Among the Church Recordings in London are the christening of Addam Trigg on January 25th 1620, at St. Martin Ludgate, and the marriage of George Trigg and Anne Brooken on September 4th 1653, at St. Dunstan's, Stepney.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Trig, which was dated 1202, in the "Assize Rolls of Lancashire", during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Terra marique victor
Motto translated: Victorious by land and sea


TUFF
  This is a genuine Old English surname which has either topographical roots or refers to a nickname. As the former, it refers to someone who lived at a "tulach", or a steep knoll, or the Old French “touche”, meaning thicket.

As a nickname, it’s derived from the pre 7th century "toh" and describes someone who was literally tough, vigorous, and stubborn, probably a favoured warrior.

Certainly from the earliest times the name was well recorded and in Scotland gave rise to the clan known as "Tough and all that Ilk", originally from Aberdeenshire. The first Scottish recording would seem to be that of Henry Toulch, the sheriff of "Abirdene" in 1361, and Sande Towcht, who apparently lived up to his name as he was arrested for "scrabbling others".

The earliest recordings are however from England and include Alicia la Towe in Worcester in 1275, and Nicholas le Toghe in the Hundred Rolls of Kent, also for 1275.

Later recordings include Thomas Towe of Westminster on May 10th 1551, Sarah Tow christened at St Andrews Church, London on February 18th 1581, Jane Toogg of Stepney on May 1st 1587, Johannes Tuff at St Martins in the Field, westminster on January 6th 1628, Thomas Tough at St Brides Church, Fleet Street, on November 23rd 1652, and Sexty Broadfield Towse, christened at St Botolphs, Bishopgate, London, on August 30th 1753.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Rober Towe, which was dated 1275, in the Hundred Rolls of Lincolnshire, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Touch, Toulch, Tough, Tuff, Tuf, Toucht. Tow(e), Toe, Tows(e)and others.

Some of the first American settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: William Tuff, who settled in Western Bay, Newfoundland, in 1794; Captain George Tuff from Dorset died in St. John's Newfoundland in 1835; John Tuff was a schoolmaster of Catalina, Newfoundland, in 1839.

Motto: Je le tiens
Motto translated: I hold it


TUNNICLIFFE
  This interesting surname, of Anglo-Saxon origin, is a location name from Tonacliffe in Lancashire. Originally written as Tunwalclif in 1246, the place name is derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "tun" meaning "settlement, enclosure", and "woell(a)", spring or stream, plus "clif" meaning bank or slope. So it means a group of dwellings at the top of a steep slope.

Variations in spelling include Dunnicliffe, Donnicliffe, Dunicliffe, Topcliffe, Tunnicliffe, Tunicliffe, Tunycliffe, Tunnacliffe, Tunacliffe, Tunicliffe, Tonacliffe, Donacliffe, Onacliffe, D'Onacliffe, Donacliffe, Doncliffe, Tunnelcliffe, Tunlecliff, Tunnicliff and many more.

Its use as a surname dates back to the 13th Century and includes: the marriage of Ann Toniecliffe and Arthur Evans on March 25th 1654, at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, London; the marriage of Elizabeth Tuncliffe and John Newcome on February 20th 1719, at St. John's, Hackney, London; and the marriage of John Tunnicliffe and Hannah Hambleton on August 2nd 1788, at Rochdale, Lancashire. In 1246 a John de Tunwalclif successfully defended in court his inheritance of a piece of land.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Henry de Tunwaleclif, which was dated 1246, witness in the "Assize Court Rolls of Lancashire", during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.


TURNER
  This ancient surname has at least three possible origins. Firstly, it may be an occupational name for a maker of small objects of wood, metal, or bone that were produced by turning on a lathe, derived from the Anglo-Norman French word "torner".

Secondly, it may be a nickname for a fast runner, from the Middle English elements "turnen", meaning to turn, plus the fusing of "hare", a hare. Thirdly, it may be occupational for an official in charge of a tournament, deriving from the Old French word "tornei".

The name has been recorded in several spellings including Turnor, Thurner, Tourner and Tournor.

Early recordings include Ralph le Turner (1191 - 1192) in the Pipe Rolls of Leicestershire, and Bernard Turnehare in the Curia Regis Rolls of Staffordshire in 1224. Examples from the surviving church registers of the city of London include the marriage of John Turner to Amy German on April 19th 1553, at St. Leonard's Eastcheap, and the christening of Thomasyn Turnor, the daughter of Thomas Turnor, at the church of St Mary Aldermary, in the city of London, on November 16th 1599. John Turner, with his two sons, was one of the passengers on the "Mayflower", the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from Plymouth to Massachusetts in 1620.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Warner le Turnur, which was dated 1180, in the "Pipe Rolls of London", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Animo et fide
Motto translated: By courage and faith


TURPIN
  This surname is of Old English and Norse-Viking origins and, like the majority of surnames, has been changed over the centuries by a combination of strong local dialects and poor spelling. The original pre 7th century translation is from "porfinnr", a word associated with the Vikings which loosely means "God-Finn", and no doubt explains why Finland was so named.

An alternative source for the name is from Turpin Au Boas, in Normandy, which was the residence of one of the Norman knights who accompanied William the Conqueror in 1066.

The 1086 Domesday Book refers to people called Torfin or Turfin mainly from the Yorkshire area, and from these original baptismal names developed a whole range of surname alternatives which include Turpin of later highway renown, and other forms such as Toping, Topling, Toplin, Tapin and Tuplin(g).

The name in its various spellings was widely popular in England, and examples of the recordings include Turfin of Northumberland in the 1202 pipe rolls, and Richard Trurpin in the 1287 Hampshire rolls. Later examples include John Topyn, christened at St Botolphs church, Bishopgate, London, on July 8th 1621, Margree Tuplin who married Francis Price at the famous church of St Mary Magdalene, London, on July 14th 1631, and Benjamin Tupling, christened at St Mary Le Bone, Marylebone, London on April 8th 1791.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Gaufridis Torphinus, which was dated 1196, in the Curia Regis Rolls of the county of Yorkshire, during the reign of King Richard I, 1189 - 1199.


TWINING
  This English surname is an Anglo-Saxon locational name and derives from "Twyning", a village in Gloucestershire, near Tewkesbury. The placename is recorded in the Saxon Charters of 814 as "Bituinaeum", and as "Tuninge" and "Tveninge" in the Domesday Book of 1086.

The name has an interesting derivation. Originally it was from the Old English words or phrase "betweon eam", meaning "the place between the streams", as can be seen from the Saxon Charters recording of 814. After 1086, the Old English suffix "-ingas" was added, meaning "the dwellers of" the place between the streams.

The surname has had various spellings; Twain, Twin, Twine, Twynee, among them. These include Ayles Twynynge of Gloucestershire in 1448, Samuel Twenings of London in 1567 and Richard Twinning also of London in 1622. The modern surname can be found as Twining, Twyning and Twinning.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Margeret Twyninge, when she married Edward Morse at Upleadon in Gloucestershire. This was dated November 14th 1541, during the reign of King Henry VIII, 1509-1547.

Motto: Stellis aspirate gemellis
Motto translated: Breathe on us with your twin stars


WAIMOTU
  This is a Maori name and is derived from Wai, meaning stream or water, and Motu, meaning island.


WAINWRIGHT
  The name Wainwright is an occupational name for a wagon-builder from the Old English word "wægnwyrhta", which means wainwright, a maker of carts and wagons. The surname is a good example of the many medieval compound names ending with "wright", a maker, often a carpenter or joiner. Other examples are Boatwright, Shipwright, Cheesewright and Arkwright. See CARTWRIGHT above.

The initial element "wain", derives from the Olde English "wæg(e)n, wæn", which was a large open vehicle, usually four-wheeled, drawn by horses.

Adam le Waynwrith is recorded in 1285 in Yorkshire, in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, while Alan le Waynwright is mentioned in the Subsidy Rolls of Lancashire in 1332. John Wainwright senior, was a member of the Assembly which governed the Sommer Islands (Barbados) in 1673.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Ailmar Wanwrecthe, which was dated 1237, in the "Documents of Hornchurch Priory", Essex, during the reign of King Henry III, 1216 - 1272.

Modern variants of the surname include Wainewright, Wainright, Waynewright, Wainwrigt and Winwright.

Early North American records indicate many people bearing the name Wainwright who emigrated there: Hester Wainewright who settled in Barbados in 1682; William Wainright settled in Barbados in 1654; John Wainright settled in Pennsylvania in 1773.

Motto: Spes mea in Deo
Motto translated: My hope is in God


WALLER
  This surname is mainly of Anglo-Saxon origin, and has four possible interpretations. It may be a topographical name for one who lived by a stone-built wall, such as that around a town or sea-wall, from the Old English pre 7th Century "w(e)all", or wall. Also from this source it may be an occupational name for a stone worker or mason. The second origin is also a topographical one, from the Olde English "waell(a)", a spring or stream, denoting someone who lived at or by a stream.

The third possible origin is from the Old English "wealan", meaning to boil, which was probably given to one who boiled sea water to extract the salt. Finally, it may be a nickname for a "good humoured person", from the Norman word "wall(i)er", meaning cheerful or merry.

Richard Waller (1395 - 1462) was sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1434 and of Kent in 1438, and an official of Henry VI 1450 - 1458 and Edward IV in 1461.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Waliere, which was dated 1185, in the "Records of the Templars in England (Kent)", during the reign of King Henry II, 1154 - 1189.

Motto: Hic fructus virtutis
Motto translated: This is the fruit of valour


WEBB
  This surname is from Old English pre 7th Century and is derived from the word "web", meaning to weave. Originally a male occupational name, the term "webbe" referred specifically to a male weaver and later "Webster" to a female weaver; although this distinction was not always made in medieval English.

Common spelling variations are Webb, Webbe, Webber and Webster.

In the Pipe Rolls of the county of Suffolk, we find Osbert Webbe recorded in 1221 and Alice la Webbe, in the rolls of the borough of Colchester, in 1327. The following quotation from the famous medieval book of social history "Piers Plowman" reads: "My wife was a webbe and woollen cloth made".

Later church recordings of the post medieval period include: Mary Webb, the daughter of George Webb, who was christened on March 5th 1550 at the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, in the city of London, and Mary Webbe who was christened on February 17th 1566, at the church of St. Benet Fink, also city of London. One of the earliest famine emigrants who fled Ireland in the tragic year of 1846 was Richard Webb, aged 20 years, who sailed on the "coffin" ship "Cornelia of Liverpool" bound for New York on January 26th 1846. Rather more happily Captain Webb was the first person to swim the twenty two miles of the English Channel in 1872.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Alger se Webba which was dated circa 1100, in the "Olde English Byname Register", during the reign of King William II, 1087 - 1100.

Motto: In alta tende
Motto translated: Aim at things on high


WEIBEL
  Weibel had Germanic origins although it’s recorded in many different spelling variations throughout Europe. The derivation is from the pre 7th Century German word "wefan", meaning to weave, and the later surname is therefore occupational for a maker or merchant of woven goods.

Occupational surnames were amongst the first to be introduced in the 12th century, but they did not usually become hereditary until a son followed his father into the business

Early examples of the surname recording taken from European records include: Henricus Weber, given as being a Burger of the city of Basle, Switzerland, in the year 1290, Uoli Waber of Waldkirch in 1400, and Hensli Webermann, of Freiburg, Germany, in 1476.

It is not clear when the name was introduced into England, but it was certainly before the 15th century and may have been first used as Webb which has a similar Anglo-Saxon root.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Waber, Wabber, Wabers, Waaber, Wabere, Waberes, Wabbers, Wabberes, Waabers, Waabbers, Wäber, Wayber, Weberman, Wober, Weer, Weher and many more.

The surviving church recordings of the post medieval period include recordings such as: Elizabeth Waby, christened at St Dunstans in the East, Stepney, on October 20th 1598, and her sister Anna, at the same church on August 17th 1604. A later example is that of William Wabe and Ann Reeves were married at St. Bride's church, Fleet Street, London, on March 9th 1822.

The first recorded spelling of the family name anywhere in the world is believed to be that of Tidric Textor also known as Tidric Weber, a citizen of Koln, Germany, in 1139.

Motto: Gott segne uns
Motto translated: God blesses us


WELCH
  This surname is of Anglo-Saxon and Northern European origins and was the word used by bith the invading Anglo-Saxons of the 5th century AD onwards, and the later Vikings of the 7th century, to describe the local "natives" of the Britain. The derivation is from "waelisc", meaning a stranger or foreigner, the word in its various spelling forms being found throughout Northern Europe.

The surname has a number of spelling including Walsh, Walshe, Welch, Welsh, Walch, Welshman and Walshman.

Early examples of the surname recordings taken from authentic rolls and registers of the medieval period include Margery Wellis in the Subsidy Rolls of the county of Essex in the year 1327, and Roger Welch in the 1334 Court Rolls of the borough of Colchester, also in Essex. In the late medieval period the word could also have been a nickname for a person from Wales, as in the example quoted by Geoffrey Chaucer in his famous book "Piers Plowman" as follows - "and Rose the Dyssheres, Godefram of Garlekhithe, and Griffyn the Walshe ..." The surname, although not in a hereditary spelling, is also found in early Irish recordings with Haylen de Walsh of Waterford, being the son of Phillip the Welshman, one of the invaders of 1170.

The first hereditary holding of the family name is probably that of Simon Welsche, which was dated 1279. This was in the "Hundred Rolls" of Bedfordshire, England, during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.

Motto: Auspice numine
Motto translated: Under divine direction


WELLWOOD
  Recorded as Walwood, Wallwood, Wellwood, Willwood, Williwood, this is an Anglo-Scottish surname. It is locational and probably from an estate known as "The lands of Wellwood" in the parish of Dunfermline, Scotland, or possibly from a now lost medieval village believed to have been called Wallwood in the county of Northumberland, England.

The surname is first recorded in Scotland in the year 1422 when one William Walwood was a charter witness. He appears again in 1437, and this time as Willyhame of Walwood, when he witnessed a charter of the Abbot of "Dunfermlyn". For many centuries it is said that "the family as Walwood and Wellwood were intimately connected with the burgh of Dunfermline, as provosts and other officers of the regality."

The name spelling has been very varied and between 188 and 1590 includes examples such as Vallod, Vollot, Wallat, Wallet, Wallod! In the city of London the name has been recorded since the time of Oliver Cromwell with Nathaniel Willwood or Williwood being christened at St Giles Cripplegate, on August 2nd 1658


WESTON
  This notable surname, of Anglo-Saxon origin, derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "west", west, with "tun", enclosure, settlement, and was originally given either as a locational name to someone from any of the various places in England and Scotland named with the above elements, or as a topographical name denoting residence on a farm to the west of a village.

Early recordings include: Adam de la Weston (Worcestershire, 1275), William de Westone (Scotland, 1296) and Alan ate Weston (Sussex, 1327). Sir Richard Weston (1466 - 1542), was Knight of the Body to Henry VIII from 1516, and under-treasurer of England, 1528 - 1542. Another Richard Weston, knighted in 1622, was an eminent agriculturist who introduced canal locks and crop rotation.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Godwinus de Westune, which was dated 1086, in the "Domesday Book of Huntingdonshire", during the reign of King William the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Aquila non captat muscas
Motto translated: The eagle catcheth not flies


WETHERHILL
  This name is of Anglo-Saxon origin, and is a locational surname deriving from the place called Wetheral near Carlisle in Cumberland. The placename is recorded as "Wetherhala", circa 1100, in the "Register of the Priory of Wetherhal", and appears as "Wederhala" in the 1186 Cumberland Pipe Rolls. The name means "the haugh where wethers were kept", derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "wether", or a wether (castrated) ram, along with "halh", which means a nook or hollow recess. In Northern England this latter element often has the specialized meaning of a "haugh" or a piece of flat alluvial land by the side of a river, originally one deposited in a bend.

Various spellings occur of this surname including We(a)therall, Wetherald, We(a)therell, Wetheril(l), Weather(h)ill and Wederell.

In Yorkshire, the marriage of Thomas Wetherell and Margaret Micklethwaite was recorded at St. Martin and St. Gregory, York, on November 16th 1595. One Sackford Wetherell was an early settler in the American Colonies; he is listed in the "Muster of the Inhabitants in Virginia" taken in 1624 - 1625, as living in Elizabeth City, having arrived in the "Swan" in 1624.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Hugh de Wederhale, which was dated 1292, in the "Records of Pleas and Warrants of Cumberland", during the reign of King Edward I, 1272 - 1307.


WHITE
  Recorded as White, Wight, Whyte, and the unusual Whight, this is an English surname of the most ancient origins. It has a number of possible origins. In the single spellings of "White" or "Wita", it appears in the very earliest surviving registers such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles of the pre 9th century. Whilst translating as white, the early name referred either to a baby, i.e. one who was "unblemished", or it may have been an early ethnic term given to a Viking or Anglo-Saxon, who were pale in hair and complexion compared with the original native Celts, who were dark.

Another possible origin is residential. If so this could describe somebody who lived at a "wiht", generally regarded as being the bend of a river, but in some areas of the country could describe a stretch of land suitable for grazing. It could also mean "The wait", as in the village name of White in Devon, which originally, it is claimed, denoted a place suitable for an ambush!

Lastly the name could also be Huguenot 17th century. Many French people called "Blanc" fled France after 1685, and in England they changed their name to White.

Early examples of the surname include: Ordgar se Wite of Somerset in the year 1070, Walter le Wytte in London in 1284, and William le Wytt, in the Subsidy Rolls of York in 1327. Amongst many interesting recordings is that of William White, who sailed on the "Mayflower" in 1620. Sadly he lived only a short time and was recorded as being buried at "Elizabeth Cittie, Virginea" in 1624.

The Ancient and Feudal Arms of England show that a Sir John White (also spelt Whyght) in the time of King Edward II (1307-1327), was listed as having fought at the battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire 1322, when the Scots were defeated. The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Alwin Wit. This was dated 1086, in the Domesday Book for Hampshire, during the reign of King William the Conqueror, 1066 - 1087.

Motto: Virtute parta
Motto translated: Acquired by work


WHITING
  This surname, of Anglo-Saxon origin, is a patronymic from the Old English pre 7th Century "Hwita" meaning "the white one".

The surname first appears in the late 11th Century and has a number of variant forms including Whiteing, Whitting, and Witting.

Recordings of the name include: John Witinge (1128 - 1134) in the Cartularium Monasterii, and William Whiting (1197) in the Pipe Rolls of Buckinghamshire. Church Records show Rachell, daughter of Roger Whiting, who was christened on May 28th 1579 in St. Thomas the Apostle, London, and Sara, daughter of Robert Whiting, who was christened on December 15th 1605 in St. Andrew Undershaft, London. John Whiting, aged 22 years, a famine emigrant, sailed from Liverpool aboard the "Isabella", bound for New York on September 11th 1846.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Roger Witenc, which was dated 1084, in the "Geld Roll of Somerset", during the reign of King William I, 1066 - 1087.


WRIGHT
  This is an occupational name and was used to describe a maker of machinery or objects, mostly from wood. The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th century word "wyrhta" meaning a craftsman, itself from the verb "wyrcan", meaning to work or construct and is commonly found to describe a wheelwright, cartwright, millwright or wainwright. When "wyrhta" was used on its own, it often referred to a builder of windmills or watermills.

Perhaps not surprisingly this is one of the first occupational surnames to be recorded, and early examples include Robert Wricht of Shropshire in 1274 and Thomas le Wrighte of Derbyshire in 1327.

Recorded in several spellings including rare forms such as Wrighte, Wraight, Wraighte, Wreight, Wrate, and the patronymics Wrightson and Wrixon, later examples of the surname include Joan Wright and Richard Trevesse who were married on May 29th 1552, at the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, in the city of London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Patere le Writh. This was dated 1214, in the tax rolls known as the "Feet of Fines" for the county of Sussex during the reign of King John, 1199 - 1216.

Motto: Aquila non captat muscas
Motto translated: The eagle catcheth not flies


YORKE
  Yorke is a location name and refers to the ancient city and county of York, the former capital of the North, whose origins pre-date the Roman occupation of 55 - 410 AD.

The place name derives from the Ancient Greek word "eburos" meaning yew tree. The Romans adopted the word and Latinized it to Eboracum, and this is the first known recording for York in circa 150 AD. When the Vikings captured the city eight hundred years later in 962 they adapted the name to their variant of Yorvik, which later became York. The first "modern" spelling of the city appears as Yeorc in 1205, not long before the first surname.

The recordings of the name include: Ernisius de Eboracum in the Pipe Rolls of Yorkshire for 1160 which is a return to the original Latin form of one thousand years earlier; Agnes de York in the 1379 Poll Tax Rolls, whilst in 1557, Guylberte Yorke and Amye Bonde were married at St. Michael's Church, Cornhill, London.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John de York, which was dated 1324, in the "Coroner's Rolls of London".

An inquiry into the early roots of North American families has revealed a number of immigrants bearing the name Yorke or York: John York, who arrived in Barbados in 1635; James York and his wife Catherine, who settled in Virginia in 1635; Sarah York, who settled in Jamaica in 1722.

Motto: Nec cupias, nec metuas
Motto Translated: Neither desire nor fear